The reports presented in the second part of the volume expand the general understanding of migration over long distances. Three key issues in the search for adaptive syndromes are addressed: acquisition and use of endogenous resources, circadian rhythms, and adaptations in metabolism.
The papers included in this volume will provide access to techniques and methods that will result in more reliable studies and more useful data. The results of these two meetings are timely and important because environments are rapidly changing and we need the means to study the impact of these changes on the physiology of animals who are responding to these changes.
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I. Measurement of Hormones from Droppings and Egg Yolk of Birds:.
1. Introduction to the European Science Foundation Technical Meeting: Analysis of Hormones in Droppings and Egg Yolk of Birds: Wolfgang Goymann and Susanne Jenni–Eiermann.
2. Potential Impact of Nutritional Strategy on Noninvasive Measurements of Hormones in Birds: Kirk C. Klasing.
3. Measurement of Corticosterone Metabolites in Birds′ Droppings: An Analytical Approach: Erich Möstl, Sophie Rettenbacher, and Rupert Palme.
4. Noninvasive Monitoring of Hormones in Bird Droppings: Physiological Validation, Sampling, Extraction, Sex Differences, and the Influence of Diet on Hormone Metabolite Levels: Wolfgang Goymann.
5. Measuring Fecal Glucocorticoid Metabolites in Mammals and Birds: The Importance of Validation: Chadi Touma and Rupert Palme.
6. Measuring Fecal Steroids: Guidelines for Practical Application: Rupert Palme.
7. A Noninvasive Technique to Evaluate Human–Generated Stress in the Black Grouse: Marjana Baltic, Susanne Jenni–Eiermann, Raphaël Arlettaz, and Rupert Palme.
8. Measuring Corticosterone Metabolites in Droppings of Capercaillies (Tetrao urogallus): Dominik Thiel, Susanne Jenni–Eiermann, and Rupert Palme.
9. Noninvasive Measures of Reproductive Function and Disturbance in the Barred Owl, Great Horned Owl, and Northern Spotted Owl: Samuel K. Wasser and Kathleen E. Hunt.
10. Synthesis of Measuring Steroid Metabolites in Goose Feces: Katharina Hirschenhauser, Kurt Kotrschal, and Erich Möstl.
11. Sampling Effort/Frequency Necessary to Infer Individual Acute Stress Responses from Fecal Analysis in Greylag Geese (Anser anser): Isabella B. R. Scheiber, Simona Kralj, and Kurt Kotrschal.
12. Investigating Maternal Hormones in Avian Eggs: Measurement, Manipulation, and Interpretation: Ton G. G. Groothuis and Nikolaus Von Engelhardt.
13. Measuring Steroid Hormones in Avian Eggs: Nikolaus Von Engelhardt and Ton G. G. Groothuis.
14. Corticosterone in Chicken Eggs: S Rettenbacher, E Möstl, R Hackl, and R Palme.
15. Steroids in Allantoic Waste: An Integrated Measure of Steroid Exposure in Ovo: Z Morgan Benowitz–Fredericks, Alexander S. Kitaysky, and John C. Wingfield.
II. Optimality in Bird Migration: Adaptations for Long–Distance Migration in Birds? The Search for Adaptive Syndromes:.
16. Are There Specific Adaptations for Long–Distance Migration in Birds? The Search for Adaptive Syndromes: Outline of the European Science Foundation Workshop: Ulf Bauchinger, Christiaan Both, and Theunis Piersma.
17. Flexible Seasonal Timing and Migratory Behavior: Results from Stonechat Breeding Programs: Barbara Helm, Eberhard Gwinner, and Lisa Trost.
18. Are Long–Distance Migrants Constrained in Their Evolutionary Response to Environmental Change?: Causes of Variation in the Timing of Autumn Migration in a Blackcap (S. atricapilla) and Two Garden Warbler (Sylvia borin) Populations: Francisco Pulido and Michael Widmer.
19. Spatial Behavior of Medium and Long–Distance Migrants at Stopovers Studied by Radio Tracking: Nikita Chernetsov.
20. Ecomorphology of the External Flight Apparatus of Blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla) with Different Migration Behavior: Wolfgang Fiedler.
21. Melatonin and Nocturnal Migration: Leonida Fusani and Eberhard Gwinner.
22. Phenotypic Flexibility of Skeletal Muscles during Long–Distance Migration of Garden Warblers: Muscle Changes Are Differentially Related to Body Mass: Ulf Bauchinger and Herbert Biebach.
23. Is There a "Migratory Syndrome" Common to All Migrant Birds?: Theunis Piersma, Javier Pérez–Tris, Henrik Mouritsen, Ulf Bauchinger, and Franz Bairlein