During the past decade, several major developments have occurred in rickettsiology. With the advent of the newly emerging infections caused by a number of rickettsias, the re–emerging of old pathogenic species of rickettsias that cause both old and new syndromes has helped redefine the level of rickettsial pathogenicity. The intracellular nature of most rickettsias remains a mystery although their genome size is close to that of the free–living neisserias.
Advances in molecular techniques have also helped redefine and reclassify rickettsias by maintaining some in the order Rickettsiales and placing others in other bacterial orders. The latter are still included in rickettsial reviews because of historical precedence. These molecular advances also help us to refine our knowledge of rickettsial pathogenesis.
This volume is the first of two volumes to result from the 4th International Conference on Rickettsiae and Rickettsial Diseases, in which an effort is made to address and clarify issues from clinical, diagnostic, epidemiologic, and molecular perspectives that have remained unsolved in the past. In this volume, several subdisciplines of rickettsiology are included: genomics and proteomics, a protocol for naming newly isolated rickettsiae; bioterrorism; the pathobiology of reckettsial infections including Q (query) fever, antibiotic resistance, and vaccines; the discovery of new ricketsiae; and the pathobiology of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma infections. This volume. along with Century of Rickettsiology, which will be published in 2006 as an Annals volume, will provide a complete picture of the world–wide range of work that is currently being carried out in the field of rickettsiology.
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New Insights into Rickettsioses: Genomics, Proteomics, Pathobiology, and the International Threat of Rickettsial Diseases: Introduction: Karim E. Hechemy, José A. Oteo, Didier Raoult, David J. Silverman, and José Ramón Blanco.
Naming of Rickettsiae and Rickettsial Diseases: Didier Raoult, Pierre–Edouard Fournier, Marina Eremeeva, Stephen Graves, Patrick J. Kelly, José A. Oteo, Zuzana Sekeyova, Akira Tamura, Irina Tarasevich, And Lijuan Zhang.
Part I: Genomics and Proteomics:.
1. Progress in Rickettsial Genome Analysis from Pioneering of Rickettsia prowazekii to the Recent Rickettsia typhi: David H. Walker and Xue–Jie Yu.
2. Rickettsia felis, from Culture to Genome Sequencing: H Ogata, C Robert, S Audic, S Robineau, G Blanc, P E Fournier, P Renesto, J M Claverie, and D Raoult.
3. Dissecting the Rickettsia prowazekii Genome: Genetic and Proteomic Approaches: Aimee M. Tucker, Lewis K. Pannell, and David O. Wood.
4. New Perspectives on Rickettsial Evolution from New Genome Sequences of Rickettsia, particularly R. canadensis, and Orientia tsutsugamushi: Marina E. Eremeeva, Anup Madan, Chris D. Shaw, Kevin Tang, and Gregory A. Dasch.
5. Preliminary Assessment of Genome Differences between the Reference Nine Mile Isolate and Two Human Endocarditis Isolates of Coxiella burnetii: Paul A. Beare, Stephen F. Porcella, Rekha Seshadri, James E. Samuel, and Robert A. Heinzen.
6. Fur–Regulated Genes in Coxiella burnetii: Heather L. Briggs, Mary J. Wilson, Rekha Seshadri, and James E. Samuel.
7. A Minimal Set of DNA Repair Genes Is Sufficient for Survival of Coxiella burnetii under Oxidative Stress: K Mertens, L Lantsheer, and J E Samuel.
8. Identification, Cloning, and Expression of Potential Diagnostic Markers for Q Fever: C C Chao, H W Chen, X Li, W B Xu, B Hanson, and W M Ching.
9. Preliminary Transcriptional Analysis of spoT Gene Family and of Membrane Proteins in Rickettsia conorii and Rickettsia felis: C Rovery, M V La, S Robineau, K Matsumoto, P Renesto, and D Raoult.
10. Phylogenic Analysis of Rickettsial Patatin–like Protein with Conserved Phospholipase A2 Active Sites: Guillaume Blanc, Patricia Renesto, and Didier Raoult.
11. Proteomic Analysis of Rickettsia prowazekii: C C Chao, D Chelius, T Zhang, E Mutumanje, and W M Ching.
12. Rickettsia conorii and R. prowazekii Proteome Analysis by 2DE–MS: A Step toward Functional Analysis of Rickettsial Genomes: Patricia Renesto, Saïd Azza, Alain Dolla, Patrick Fourquet, Guy Vestris, Jean–Pierre Gorvel, and Didier Raoult.
13. Phylogenetic Study of Rickettsia Species Using Sequences of the Autotransporter Protein–Encoding Gene sca2: Maxime Ngwamidiba, Guillaume Blanc, Hiroyuki Ogata, Didier Raoult, and Pierre–Edouard Fournier.
14. Molecular Characterization of a Group of Proteins Containing Ankyrin Repeats in Orientia tsutsugamushi: Nam–Hyuk Cho, Jo–Min Kim, Eun–Kyung Kwon, Se–Yoon Kim, Seung–Hoon Han, Hyuk Chu, Jung–Hee Lee, Myung–Sik Choi, and Ik–Sang Kim.
15. Ehrlichia ruminantium: A Promiscuous Genome: Maria Allsopp, Helena Steyn, Erich Zweygarth, and Basil Allsopp.
Part II: Pathobiology of Q Fever Infection:.
16. Coxiella burnetii Infection: Jan Kazar.
17. Coxiella burnetii Whole Cell Lysate Protein Identification by Mass Spectrometry and Tandem Mass Spectrometry: Ludovit Skultety, Lenka Hernychova, Rudolf Toman, Martin Hubalek, Katarina Slaba, Jana Zechovska, Veronika Stofanikova, Juraj Lenco, Jiri Stulik, and Ales Macela.
18. Replication of Coxiella burnetii Is Inhibited in CHO K–1 Cells Treated with Inhibitors of Cholesterol Metabolism: Dale Howe and Robert A. Heinzen.
19. Protective Immunity against Q Fever Induced with a Recombinant P1 Antigen Fused with HspB of Coxiella burnetii: Qingfeng Li, Dongsheng Niu, Bohai Wen, Meiling Chen, Ling Qiu, and Jingbo Zhang.
20. Immunization Experiments with Recombinant Coxiella burnetii Proteins in a Murine Infection Model: Judith Tyczka, Sandra Eberling, and Georg Baljer.
21. Structural and Functional Characterization of the Glycan Antigens Involved in Immunobiology of Q Fever: Pavol Vadovic, Katarina Slaba, Marcela Fodorova, Ludovit Skultety, and Rudolf Toman.
22. Lack of Dendritic Cell Maturation Following Infection by Coxiella burnetii Synthesizing Different Lipopolysaccharide Chemotypes: Jeffrey G. Shannon, Dale Howe, and Robert A. Heinzen.
23. TLR2 Is Necessary to Inflammatory Response in Coxiella burnetii Infection: Soraya Meghari, Amélie Honstettre, Hubert Lepidi, Bernardt Ryffel, Didier Raoult, and Jean–Louis Mege.
24. Comparative Virulence of Phase I and II Coxiella burnetii in Immunodeficient Mice: Masako Andoh, Kasi E. Russell–Lodrigue, Guoquan Zhang, and James E. Samuel.
25. Balb/c Mouse Model and Real–Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction for Evaluation of the Immunoprotectivity against Q Fever: Jingbo Zhang, Bohai Wen, Meiling Chen, Jun Zhang, and Dongsheng Niu.
26. Hepatitis Associated with C. burnetii Isolates: K E Russell–Lodrigue, M W J Poels, G Q Zhang, D N Mcmurray, and J E Samuel.
27. Q Fever Research Group (QRG), Adelaide: Activities–Exit Summary 1980–2004: B Marmion, R Harris, P Storm, K Helbig, I Penttila, D Worswick, and L Semendric.
Part III: Pathobiology of Rickettsial Infection, Antibiotic Resistance, and Vaccines:.
28. Rickettsial Infections: Juan P. Olano.
29. The Presence of Eschars, but Not Greater Severity, in Portuguese Patients Infected with Israeli Spotted Fever: Rita De Sousa, Nahed Ismail, Sónia Dória–Nóbrega, Pedro Costa, Tiago Abreu, Ana França, Mário Amaro, Paula Proença, Paula Brito, José Poças, Teresa Ramos, Graça Cristina, Graça Pombo, Liliana Vitorino, Jorge Torgal, Fátima Bacellar, and David Walker.
30. Similarities and Differences in Host Cell Signaling following Infection with Different Rickettsia Species: Elena Rydkina, David J. Silverman, and Sanjeev K. Sahni.
31. Potential Roles for Regulatory Oxygenases in Rickettsial Pathogenesis: Sanjeev K. Sahni, Elena Rydkina, Abha Sahni, Suresh G. Joshi, and David J. Silverman.
32. Growth of Typhus Group and Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in Insect Cells: Tsuneo Uchiyama.
33. Genome Comparison Analysis of Molecular Mechanisms of Resistance to Antibiotics in the Rickettsia Genus: J M Rolain And D Raoult.
34. Cloning and Sequence Analysis of the 22–kDa Antigen Genes of Orientia tsutsugamushi Strains Kato, TA763, AFSC 7, 18–032460, TH1814, and MAK 119: Hong Ge, Min Tong, Andrew Li, Rajan Mehta, and Wei–Mei Ching.
35. Nitric Oxide as a Mediator of Increased Microvascular Permeability during Acute Rickettsioses: Michael E. Woods, Gary Wen, and Juan P. Olano.
36. Cloning and Expression of 51–kDa Antigenic Protein of Neorickettsia risticii NR–JA1: Myeong–Kyu Park, Eun–Ha Kim, Mae–Rim Cho, Ying–Hua Yi, Mi–Jin Lee, Devendra H. Shah, Jin–Ho Park, Bae–Keun Park, Seong–Kug Eo, John–Hwa Lee, and Joon–Seok Chae.
37. Activity of Telithromycin against Thirteen New Isolates of C. burnetii Including Three Resistant to Doxycycline: Jean–Marc Rolain, Frédéric Lambert, and Didier Raoult.
38. Effect of Antibiotic Treatment in Patients with DEBONEL/TIBOLA: V Ibarra, J R Blanco, A Portillo, S Santibáñez, L Metola, and J A Oteo.
39. Structural Features of Lipopolysaccharide from Rickettsia Typhi: The Causative Agent of Endemic Typhus: Marcela Fodorova, Pavol Vadovic, Ludovit Skultety, Katarina Slaba, and Rudolf Toman.
40. Analysis of Immunoprotectivity of the Recombinant OmpA of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis: Yanmei Jiao, Bohai Wen, Meiling Chen, Dongsheng Niu, Jun Zhang, and Ling Qiu.
41. Short– and Long–Term Immune Responses of CD–1 Outbred Mice to the Scrub Typhus DNA Vaccine Candidate: p47Kp: Guang Xu, Suchismita Chattopadhyay, Ju Jiang, Teik–Chye Chan, Chien–Chung Chao, Wei–Mei Ching, and Allen L. Richards.
Part IV: Bartonella:.
42. Bartonellae as Elegant Hemotropic Parasites: Richard J. Birtles.
43. Production of Recombinant Protein Pap31 and Its Application for the Diagnosis of Bartonella bacilliformis Infection: A Taye, H Chen, K Duncan, Z Zhang, L Hendrix, J Gonzalez, and W Ching.
44. Bartonella bacilliformis GroEL: Effect on Growth of Human Vascular Endothelial Cells in Infected Cocultures: Laura S. Smitherman and Michael F. Minnick.
45. Occurrence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana among Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Patients: M Pape, P Kollaras, K Mandraveli, A Tsona, S Metallidis, P Nikolaidis, and S Alexiou–Daniel.
46. Bacillary Angiomatosis Caused by Bartonella Quintana: Montserrat Sala, Bernat Font, Isabel Sanfeliu, Mariela Quesada, Imma Ponts, and Ferran Segura.
47. Molecular Screening of Bartonella Species in Rodents from the Russian Far East: Oleg Mediannikov, Leonid Ivanov, Nina Zdanovskaya, Nelya Vysochina, Pierre–Edouard Fournier, Irina Tarasevich, and Didier Raoult.
48. Characterization of Genes Involved in Long–Term Bacteremia in Mice by Bartonella birtlesii: Maria Mavris, Henri Saenz, Martine Monteil, Henri–Jean Boulouis, Christoph Dehio, and Muriel Vayssier–Taussat.
Part V: New Rickettsiae or Rickettsiae Not Previously or Recently Known to Cause Human Infection:.
49. Rickettsia parkeri as a Paradigm for Multiple Causes of Tick–Borne Spotted Fever in the Western Hemisphere: Christopher D. Paddock.
50. Detection of a Typhus Group Rickettsia in Amblyomma Ticks in the State of Nuevo Leon, Mexico: Aaron Medina–Sanchez, Donald H. Bouyer, Virginia Alcantara–Rodriguez, Claudio Mafra, Jorge Zavala–Castro, Ted Whitworth, Vsevolod L. Popov, Ildefonso Fernandez–Salas, and David H. Walker.
51. Detection of a Non–Pathogenic Variant of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus from La Rioja, Spain: A Portillo, A S Santos, S Santibáñez, L Pérez–Martínez, J R Blanco, V Ibarra, and J A Oteo.
52. Phylogenetic Analysis of a Novel Molecular Isolate of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae from Northern Peru: Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae: Ju Jiang, Patrick J. Blair, Vidal Felices, Cecilia Moron, Manuel Cespedes, Elizabeth Anaya, George B. Schoeler, John W. Sumner, James G. Olson, and Allen L. Richards.
53. Molecular and Biological Characterization of a Novel Coxiella–like Agent from Carios capensis: Will K. Reeves, Amanda D. Loftis, Rachael A. Priestley, William Wills, Felicia Sanders, And Gregory A. Dasch.
54. DEBONEL/TIBOLA: Is Rickettsia slovaca the Only Etiological Agent?: V Ibarra, A Portillo, S Santibáñez, J R Blanco, L Pérez–Martínez, J Márquez, And J A Oteo.
55. Low Risk of Developing Human Rickettsia aeschlimannii Infection in the North of Spain: J A Oteo, A Portillo, J R Blanco, V Ibarra, L Pérez–Martínez, C Izco, A Pérez–Palacios, and S Jiménez.
56. Novel Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae (SFGR) Infecting Amblyomma americanum Ticks in Ohio, USA: D J Kelly, J R Carmichael, G C Booton, K F Poetter, And P A Fuerst.
57. Old and New Human Rickettsiosis in Minas Gerais State, Brazil: S B Calic, C M Barcellos–Rocha, R C Leite, C L Mafra, and M A M Galvão.
58. Ehrlichia ruminantium: An Emerging Human Pathogen?: M T E P Allsopp, M Louw, And E C Meyer.
Part VI: Pathobiology of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma Infections:.
59. Anaplasma and Ehrlichia Infection: J Stephen Dumler.
60. The Interactions of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Endothelial Cells, and Human Neutrophils: Michael J. Herron, Marna E. Ericson, Timothy J. Kurtti, and Ulrike G. Munderloh.
61. Balancing Protective Immunity and Immunopathology: A Unifying Model of Monocytotropic Ehrlichiosis: Nahed Ismail and David H. Walker.
62. Susceptibility and Resistance to Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in the Mouse: Gary M. Winslow, Constantine Bitsaktsis, and Eric Yager.
63. Overcoming Barriers to the Transformation of the Genus Ehrlichia: S Wesley Long, Ted J. Whitworth, David H. Walker, and Xue–Jie Yu.
64. Mechanisms of Immunological Control of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Mice: Christina Rinkler, Yvonne Kern, Christian Bogdan, and Friederike D. Von Loewenich.
65. Platelet Dysfunction after Association with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Vitro: Dori L. Borjesson, Jennifer L. Brazzell, and Regina Feferman.
66. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Infection Reduces Expression of Phagocytosis–Related Receptors on Neutrophils: Justin W. A. Garyu and J Stephen Dumler.
67. Analysis of Ehrlichial p28 Gene Expression in a Murine Model of Persistent Infection: Patricia A. Crocquet–Valdes, Jere W. Mcbride, Hui–Min Feng, Nahed Ismail, Melissa A. Small, Xue–Jie Yu, and David H. Walker.
68. Innate Immune Tissue Injury and Murine HGA: Tissue Injury in the Murine Model of Granulocytic Anaplasmosis Relates to Host Innate Immune Response and Not Pathogen Load: Diana G. Scorpio, Friederike D. Von Loewenich, Christian Bogdan, and J Stephen Dumler.
69. Cytokine Responses in Dogs Infected with Ehrlichia canis Oklahoma Strain: Tomoko Tajima and Yasuko Rikihisa.
70. Molecular Characterization of E. canis gp36 and E. chaffeensis gp47 Tandem Repeats among Isolates from Different Geographic Locations: C Kuyler Doyle, Ana Maria Cardenas, Daniel M. Aguiar, Marcelo B. Labruna, Lucy M. Ndip, Xue–Jie Yu, and Jere W. Mcbride.
71. Prophylactic Use of Sustained–Release Doxycycline Blocks Tick–Transmitted Infection by Anaplasma phagocytophilum in a Murine Model: Robert F. Massung, Nordin S. Zeidner, Marc C. Dolan, Dawn Roellig, Elizabeth Gabitzsch, Danielle R. Troughton, and Michael L. Levin.
72. Concentration of Procalcitonin and C–Reactive Protein in Patients with Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis and the Initial Phase of Tick–Borne Encephalitis: Stanka Lotric–Furlan, Tereza Rojko, and Franc Strle.
Part VII: Ricketsiae Agents of Bioterrorism:.
73. Genome Analysis of Coxiella burnetii Species: Insights into Pathogenesis and Evolution and Implications for Biodefense: Rekha Seshadri and James Samuel.
74. Attack Scenarios with Rickettsial Species: Implications for Response and Management: G Pappas, N Akritidis, and E V Tsianos.
75. The Pathogen Resource Integration Center: Implications for Rickettsial Research: Mark E. Hance, Michael J. Czar, Abdu Azad, Anjan Purkayastha, Eric E. Snyder, Oswald R. Crasta, Joao C. Setubal, and Bruno W. Sobral.
76. Evaluation of Low Concentration Aerosol for Infecting Humans with the Q Fever Pathogen: Eugene Vorobeychikov, Alexander Vasilenko, Nikolay Tokarevich, Ludmila Yakovleva, and Boris Nikolaev.
Index of Contributors