The second of two volumes, this volume comprises three sections: (1) new insights on the interaction of blood vessels and bone, particularly the role of angiogenic signals and hypoxia in osteogenesis and bone repair, as well as the dysregulation of transcription factors causing arterial calcification; (2) a new theme integrating the evolving role of immune cells, infection, and inflammation in causing bone loss seen, for example, in various forms of arthritides; and (3) the clinical and therapeutic challenges in bone, stone, and joint diseases, and areas such as identification of high–risk patients, advent of novel therapeutic targets, genetic aberrations causing bone disease, and issues surrounding bone loss in malignancy, hyperparathyroidism, and adrenal disorders.
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Historical Reflections and the Future: Iain MacIntyre.
Part I: Bone and Blood Vessels:.
1. Oxygen Sensing and Osteogenesis: Ying Wang, Chao Wan, Shawn R. Gilbert, and Thomas L. Clemens.
2. Perspective: The Osteoclast: An Angiogenic Cell?: Frank C. Cackowski and G. David Roodman.
3. Fetal Growth Plate: A Developmental Model of Cellular Adaptation to Hypoxia: Sylvain Provot and Ernestina Schipani.
4. Vascular Bmp–Msx2–Wnt Signaling And Oxidative Stress In Arterial Calcification: Jian–Su Shao, Ziyad Al Aly, Chung–Fang Lai, Su–Li Cheng, Jun Cai, Emily Huang, Abe Behrmann, and Dwight A. Towler.
5. Hypoxia–Mediated Mitochondrial Stress in RAW 264.7 Cells Induces Osteoclast–Like TRAP Positive Cells: Satish Srinivasan, and Narayan G. Avadhani.
6. Stem Cell Therapy in Bone Repair and Regeneration: Neeha Zaidi and Alan J. Nixon.
7. Fluid Shear Stress Up–regulates Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Expression in Osteoblasts: Mia M. Thi, Dumitru A. Iacobas, Sanda Iacobas, and David C. Spray.
Part II: Skeltal Immunity and Inflamation:.
8. B Lymphocytes and the Skeleton: Mark C. Horowitz.
9. Vitamin D in Defense of the Human Immune Response: John S. Adams, Philip T. Liu, Rene Chun, Robert L. Modlin, and Martin Hewison.
10. MRI and Quantification of Draining Lymph Node Function in Inflammatory Arthritis: Steven T. Proulx, Edmund Kwok, Zhigang You, Christopher A. Beck, David J. Shealy, Christopher T. Ritchlin, Brendan F. Boyce, Lianping Xing, and Edward M. Schwarz.
11. Perfusion Abnormalities in Subchondral Bone Associated with Marrow Edema, Osteoarthritis, and Avascular Necrosis: Roy K. Aaron, Jonathan P. Dyke, Deborah McK. Ciombor, Glenn A. Tung.
12. Nuclear Factor of Activated T cell Mediates Proinflamatory Gene Expression in Response to Mechanotransduction: Ayse B. Celil Aydemir, Stephenie Lee, Dae Won Kim, Thomas R. Gardner, Daniel Prince, Jae Mok Ahn, and Francis Young–In Lee.
13. Orthopaedic Implant Particle–Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor– Production in Macrophage/Monocyte Lineage Cells is Mediated by Nuclear Factor of Activated T cells: Hiroshi Minematsu, Mike J. Shin, Ayse B. Celil Aydemir, Sung Wook Seo,Dae Won Kim, Theodore A. Blaine, Fernando Macián, Jay Yang, Francis Young–In Lee.
14. ERK Signaling Regulates M–CSF Expression Induced By Titanium Particles In MC3T3.E1 Murine Calvarial Preosteoblastic Cells.
15. Sung W. Seo, Daniel Lee, Samuel K Cho, Abraham D. Kim, Hiroshi Minematsu, Ayse B. Cecil Aydemir, Jeffrey A. Geller, William Macaulay, Jay Yang, Francis Y. Lee.
16. Synovial Fluid Fibroblasts and Lymphocytes Support the Osteoclastogenesis in Human Psoriatic Arthritis: Giorgio Mori, Francesco P. Cantatore, Giacomina Brunetti, Angela Oranger, Graziana Colaianni, Laura Quarta, Addolorata Corrado, Silvia Colucci, and Maria Grano.
17. Molecular and Histological Analysis of A New Rat Model of Experimental Knee Osteoarthritis: C. Thomas G. Appleton, David D. McErlain, James L. Henry, David W. Holdsworth and Frank Beier.
18. Expression of MIG–6, WNT–7B and WNT–9A During Osteoarthritis: Cristina Velasquillo, David Garciadiego–Cázares, Maylin Almonte, Marcia Bustamante, Clemente Ibarra, Juan B. Kouri, Jesús Chimal–Monroy.
19. Calcitonin Affects Both Bone and Cartilage – A Possible Dual Action Tratment for Osteoarthritis?: Morten A. Karsdal, Bodil C. Sondergaard, Michel Arnold, Claus Christiansen.
Part III: Clinical and Therapeutic Challenges in Bone and Joint Disease:.
20. Progress, Paradox and Potential: Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Research Over Five Decades: John T. Potts, and Thomas J. Gardella.
21. Bisphosphonates: From Bench to Bedside: Graham Russell.
22. Future Developments in Therapy: Carlos M. Isales and Jay M. McDonald.
23. Selecting Patients at Risk of Osteoporotic Fracture: The Proposed WHO risk platform: Stuart L. Silverman.
24. Progression of Efficacy With Ibandronate A Paradigm For The Development of New Bisphosphonates: Mone Zaidi, Solomon Epstein, Steven T. Harris, Joseph D. Kohles,Charles H. Chesnut.
25. Rationale for Using Nitric Oxide Donor Therapay for Prevention of Bone Loss and Treatment of Osteoporosis in Humans: Sunil J. Wimalawansa.
26. Proteasome Inhibitors Stimulate both Bone Formation and Hair Growth by Similar Mechanisms: Gregory Mundy, Gloria Gutierrez, Ross Garrett, Wolfgang Gallwitz, Gianni Rossini, Claus Christiansen, and Andria Langenberg.
27. The Skeletal Dysplasias: Clinical–Molecular Correlations: David L. Rimoin, Daniel Cohn, Deborah Krakow, William Wilcox, Ralph S. Lachman, Yasemin Alanay.
28. Gene Therapy in Musculoskeletal Repair: Alan J. Nixon, Laurie R. Goodrich, Michael S. Scimeca, Tom H. Witte, Lauren V. Schnabel, Ashlee E. Watts, Paul D. Robbins.
29. Studies of Osteotropism on Both Sides of the Breast Cancer–Bone Interaction: Jodie Moreau, Kristen M. Anderson , Joshua R. Mauney, David Kaplan, and Michael Rosenblatt.
30. Effects of Adrenal Steroids on the Bone Metabolism of Children with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Karen Lin–Su and Maria I. New.
31. Quantitative Ultrasound Technology in Evaluating Bone Status and Osteoporosis in Patients with Cushing′s Syndrome: Valentina Camozzi, Giovanni Luisetto, Monica Zangari, and Franco Lumachi.
32. Bone Mineral Density Improvement After Successful Parathyroidectomy in Pre– and Postmenopausal Women with Primary Hyperparathyroidism. A Prospective Study: Franco Lumachi, Valentina Camozzi,Mario Ermani, Frederica De Lotto, and Giovanni Luisetto.
33. Lumbar Spine Bone Mineral Density Changes in Patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism According to Age and Gender: Franco Lumachi, Valentina Camozzi, Mario Ermani, Alfredo Nardi, and Giovanni Luisetto.
34. Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Bone Marrow Cells in Silk Scaffolds is Regulated by Nitric Oxide: Petros D. Damoulis, Dimitrios E. Drakos, Eleni Gagari, David L. Kaplan.
35. IL–7 Modulats Osteoclastogenesis in Patients Affected by Solid Tumors: Ilaria Roato , Eva Gorassini, Giacomina Brunetti , Maria Grano, Libero Ciuffreda , Antonio Mussa and Riccardo Ferracini.
36. PTHrP and Tumorigenesis: Is There A Role in Prognosis?: Minoru Nishihara, Takashi Kanematsu, Mohammed S. Razzaque Takashi Taguchi