This volume is based on a conference held as a satellite symposium of the 9th VIP/PACAP and Related Peptides Symposium in Kagoshima in Oct 5–8th in 2009.
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2. Gene and exon duplications: creation of multiple proglucagon–derived peptide copies in fish and amphibian lineages (Stephanie Y.L. Ng, Leo T.O. Lee, and Billy K.C. Chow).
3. Oxytocin/vasopressin and gonadotropin–releasing hormone from octopus to vertebrates (Hiroyuki Minakata).
4. Somatostatin and its receptors from fish to mammals (Manuel D. Gahete, Jose Cordoba–Chacón, Mario Duran–Prado, María M. Malagón, Antonio J. Martinez–Fuentes, Francisco Gracia–Navarro, Raul M Luque, and Justo P Castaño).
5. Urotensin II, from fish to human (Hubert Vaudry, Jean–Claude Do Rego, Jean–Claude Le Mevel, David Chatenet, Hervé Tostivint, Alain Fournier, Marie–Christine Tonon, Georges Pelletier, J. Michael Conlon, and Jérôme Leprince).
6. Molecular coevolution of kisspeptins and their receptors from fish to mammals (Haet Nim Um, Ji Man Han, Jong–Ik Hwang, Sung In Hong, Hubert Vaudry, and Jae Young Seong).
7. Phylogenetic aspects of gonadotropin–inhibitory hormone and its homologs in vertebrates (Kazuyoshi Tsutsui).
8. Evolution of the opioid/ORL–1 receptor gene family (Robert Dores, Jazalle McClendon, Stephanie; Lecaude, and Anthony Dores).
9. Sexual differentiation of kisspeptin/metastin neurons responsible for sex difference in gonadotropin release in rats (Hiroko Tsukamura, Tamami Homma, Junko Tomikawa, Yoshihisa Uenoyama, and Kei–ichiro Maeda).
10. Neuromedin U is necessary for normal gastrointestinal motility and is regulated by serotonin (Yoshiki Nakashima, Takanori Ida, Takahiro Sato, Yuki Nakamura, Tomoko Takahashi, Kenji Mori, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa, Jingo Kusukawa, and Masayasu Kojima).
11. Functional interaction of regulators of G protein signaling–2 with melanin–concentrating hormone receptor 1 (Mayumi Miyamoto–Matsubara, Shinjae Chung, and Yumiko Saito).
12. Translational research of gastrointestinal peptides (Hiroaki Ueno, Tomomi Shiiya, and Masamitsu Nakazato).
13. Review of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide in the retina: focus on the retinoprotective effects (T. Atlasz, K. Szabadfi, P. Kiss, B. Racz, F. Gallyas, A. Tamas, V. Gaal, Zs Marton , R. Gabriel, and D. Reglodi).
14. Ghrelin: more than endogenous growth hormone secretagogue (Masayasu Kojima and Kenji Kangawa).
15. Orexin system: roles in sleep/wake regulation (Takeshi Sakurai, Michihiro Mieda, and Natsuko Tsujino).
16. Neuropeptide W: a key player in the homeostatic regulation of feeding and energy metabolism? (Fumiko Takenoya, Haruaki Kageyama, Kanako Shiba, Yukari Date, Masamitsu Nakazato, and Seiji Shioda).