X–Rays, Neutrons and Muons

  • ID: 2179545
  • Book
  • 248 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Spectroscopy is a versatile tool for the characterization of materials, and photons in the visible frequency range of the electromagnetic

spectrum have been used successfully for more than a century now. But other elementary particles such as neutrons, muons and x–ray

photons have been proven to be useful probes as well and are routinely generated in modern cyclotrons and synchrotrons. They offer attractive

alternative ways of probing condensed matter in order to better understand its properties and to correlate material behavior with its structure. In particular, the combination of these different spectroscopic probes yields rich information on the material samples, thereby allowing for a systematic investigation down to atomic resolutions.

This book gives a practical account of how well they complement each other for 21st century material characterization, and provides the

basis for a detailed understanding of the scattering processes and the knowledge of the relevant microscopic interactions necessary for the

correct interpretation of the experimentally obtained spectroscopic data.
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PREFACE

INTRODUCTION

Some Historical Remarks

The Experimental Methods

The Solid as a Many Body

Survey over the Spectral Region of a Solid

THE PROBES, THEIR ORIGIN AND PROPERTIES

Origin

Properties

Magnetic Field of the Probing Particles

INTERACTION OF THE PROBES WITH THE CONSTITUENTS OF MATTER

The Nuclear Interaction of Neutrons

Interaction of X–Rays with Atomic Constituents

Magnetic Interaction

Corollar

SCATTERING ON (BULK–)SAMPLES

Introduction

The Sample as a Thermodynamic System

The Scattering Experiment

Properties of the Scattering and Correlation Function

General Form of Spin–Dependent Cross–Sections

Summary and Conclusions

GENERAL THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Time Development of the Density Operator

Generalized Suspectibility

Dielectric Response Function and Sum Rules

APPENDIX A: PRINCIPLES OF SCATTERING THEORY

Potential Scattering (Supporting Section 3.1.1)

Two Particle Scattering (Supporting Section 3.1.2)

Abstract Scattering Theory (Supporting Section 3.2)

Time–Dependent Perturbation

Scattering of Light on Atoms

Polarization and its Analysis

APPENDIX B: FORM FACTORS

APPENDIX C: REMINDER ON STATISTICAL MECHANICS

The Statistical Operator P

The Equation of Motion

Entropy

Thermal Equilibrium –

The Canonical Distribution

Thermodynamics

APPENDIX D: THE MAGNETIC MATRIX–ELEMENTS

The Trammell Expansion

The Matrix Elements

Conclusion

APPENDIX E: THE PRINCIPLE OF A MSR–EXPERIMENT

APPENDIX F: REFLECTION SYMMETRY AND TIME–REVERSAL INVARIANCE

Invariance Under Space Inversion Q

Invariance Under Time Reversal

APPENDIX G: PHONON COUPLING TO HEAT BATH

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Walter E. Fischer (1939–2008) was the former head of the Department of Condensed Matter Research with Neutrons and Muons (NUM) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland. He pioneered in establishing the spallation neutron source SINQ at PSI which went into operation in the mid–1990s. Later he foundes a condensed matter theory group to complement the experimental work at the neutron source.
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