Fires in Silos. Hazards, Prevention, and Fire Fighting

  • ID: 2179686
  • Book
  • 156 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Storage of chemicals in silos is ubiquitous in the chemical, pharmaceutical and other producing industries, and some 80 % of all bulk materials are inflammable. It is here that the risk of large fires arises due to self–ignition or the intrusion of different ignition sources. For firefighters, most silo fires are very difficult to handle due to the large amount of combustibles, hidden hot spots of burning material, and possibly toxicity of the chemicals involved or their combustion products.

Thus, specialist knowledge is absolutely necessary for smooth silo plant operation, hazard prevention and hazard control during emergencies –– sometimes even firefighters take inappropriate action due to a lack of information.

This book provides just such in–depth expert knowledge, drawing on many lessons learned from past silo fires. It explains current prevention measures in detail –– helping to prevent future damage. Numerous types of fire detection devices and fire fighting equipment are covered, backed by extensive data tables listing fire and explosion characteristics of bulk materials, color photographs of silos on fire and documentation of firefighters′ actions. In addition, diagrams and formulas as well as pre–prepared check lists are included for risk assessment and fire fighting actions.

Possibly lifesaving reading for chemists in industry, engineers, chemical engineers, health officers, environmental consultants, instructors in the chemical industry, as well as chemicals suppliers and safety officers.
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INTRODUCTION

Problem Description

Influence of Material Properties on Fire

Chemical Properties of Bulk Goods

IGNITION SOURCES

Introduction

External Ignition Sources

Self–Heating

Physical Characteristics of Self–Ignition Processes and Smoldering Fire Propagation

FIRE RISK ASSESSMENT

Introduction

Experimental Techniques

EXPLOSION RISK AND PROTECTION

Essential Conditions for Explosion Occurrence

Parameters of Dust Explosion;

Definitions

Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Agricultural Dusts

Explosion Characteristics

Propagation of Explosion

Dynamics of Explosions in Long Ducts and Galleries

Causes of Fires and Fire–Explosion Protection

Fire and Explosion Prevention and Protection in the Storage of Agro, Feed and Food Products

Explosions

Fire

FIRE DETECTION

Introduction

Smoke Detectors

Flame Detectors

Spark Detectors

Heat Detectors

Application Examples

CASE STUDIES

Fire in a Silo for Wood Pellets in Esbjerg, Denmark, 1998–1999

Further Case Studies

FIGHTING SILO FIRES

Introduction

Inert Gases for Silo Fire Fighting

Nitrogen

Carbon Dioxide

Fighting a Silo Fire in an Animal Food Production Plant

Test Inertization of a Malt Silo

NECESSARY FIRE PREVENTION MEASURES FOR SILOS WITH FLAMMABLE SOLID BULK MATERIALS IN CONNCETION WITH INERTING DURING A FIRE

Inerting of Silos with Flammable Solid Bulk Materials in Case of Fire

Recommendations for Construction, Processing and Operation

Measures in Case of Fire

PREDICTIVE TOOLS FOR HAZARD ASSESSMENT OF SELF–IGNITION

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Dr. habil. Ulrich Krause is head of the division "Fire Engineering" at the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) in Berlin, Germany, which he joined in 1991. He studied fluid mechanics and thermodynamics at the Technical University of Dresden from 1980 to 1985 and obtained his Ph.D. in 1989. In 2001, he completed his Habilitation(equivalent to D.Sc.) on heat and mass transfer in dust explosions, also at the Technical University of Dresden.

His research interests focus on accidental fires in bulk materials, solid fuels, dust explosions, and on the CFD modelling of fires and explosions. He lectures on computational methods in process safety at the Technical University of Berlin. He is member of several EU standardization working groups, has authored and co–authored three monographs, and has published over 50 papers in scientific and technical journals to date.

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