Applied Thin-Layer Chromatography. Best Practice and Avoidance of Mistakes. 2nd Edition

  • ID: 2179711
  • Book
  • 330 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Thin–layer chromatography (TLC) is a powerful, fast and inexpensive analytical method, which has proven its effectiveness in the analysis of pharmaceuticals, food and the environment. This new edition of the practical guide to TLC includes a completely revised chapter on documentation, which now covers the use of digital cameras, while selected new sorbents and instruments are also introduced.

This edition retains the successful features of its predecessor:

  • Clear explanation of all steps in the analytical procedure, starting with the choice of a suitable TLC technique and finishing with data evaluation and documentation.
  • Special emphasis on the correct choice of materials for TLC. Properties and functions of various materials and the TLC equipment are described, covering precoated layers, solvents and developing chambers, including information on suppliers, among others.
  • Many practical hints for troubleshooting.
  • Detailed description of using TLC in compliance with GLP/GMP regulations, including the required documentation , allowing readers to easily compile their own standard operating procedures.
  • Numerous color illustrations.

From the reviews of the first edition:

"A clear, step–by–step practical guide to TLC, covering every stage of the process from plate selection and sample application to development and quantification. At every stage potential pitfalls are clearly signposted and each chapter contains a profusion of pracitcal tips. Even a seasoned TLC practitioner should find something of use or interest in this book which complements most existing texts."The Analyst

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INTRODUCTION

What is TLC?

When is TLC used?

Where is TLC used

How is the result of a TLC represented?

What kinds of reference substances are used in TLC?

The literature on TLC

PRECOATED LAYERS

Why use precoated layers?

How are precoated layers produced?

What kinds of precoated layers are there?

What are precoated layers used for?

Criteria for choosing stationary phases in TLC

Effect of the stationary phase when the solvents are identical

Recommendations for the procurement and storage of precoated layers

Problems in the nomenclature and classification of precoated layers

BEFORE TLC DEVELOPMENT

Handling of the precoated layers

Prewashing

Activation

Conditioning

Impregnation

Application of the sample

Positioning of the sample

Drying before development

SOLVENT, DEVELOPING CHAMBERS AND DEVELOPMENT

Solvent

TLC developing chambers

Development of thin–layer chromatograms

Drying after development

EVALUATION WITHOUT DERIVATIZATION

Visual direct evaluation

Optical direct evaluation using special equipment

Coupling methods for substance identification

Documentation without or before derivatization

DERIVATIZATION

Thermochemical reaction

Irradiation with high energy light

Reaction with reagents

Special types of derivatization

Treatment of derivatized chromatograms

EVALUATION AFTER DERIVATIZATION

Visual evaluation

Evaluation by TLC scanner

Evaluation by video system

Evaluation by flat–bed scanner

DOCUMENTATION

Description of a thin–layer chromatogram

Documentation by reproduction, tracing or photocopying

Photographic documentation

Video documentation

TLC scanner documentation

Flat–bed scanner documentation

GMP/GLP–CONFORMING TLC WORK

Validation of TLC methods

Use of qualified

calibrated equipment

GMP/GLP–conforming rawdata sheets

Examples of GMP/GLP–conforming testing procedures

LOADING EFFECTS

Definite loading of a substance

TLC of sensitive substances

SPECIAL METHODS IN TLC

AMD –

Automated Multiple Development

OPLC –

Overpressured Layer Chromatography

HPPLC –

High Pressure Planar Liquid Chromatography

TLC–FID/FTID –

Combination of TLC with Flame Ionization Detector or Flame Thermoionic Ionization Detector

RPC –

Rotation Planar Chromatography

Appendix

Chromatography and art

References

Abbreviations used

Acknowledgements

Market review
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Elke Hahn–Deinstrop
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