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Thermal Safety of Chemical Processes. Risk Assessment and Process Design

  • ID: 2179739
  • Book
  • 393 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Based on the author′s many years of experience in practicing safety assessment in industry and teaching students or professionals in this area, this book presents the methods for a systematic assessment of risks due to potential loss of control over chemical reactions and for the prevention of runaway reactions on an industrial scale.

Since this topic is seldom found on university curricula and many professionals do not have the knowledge required to interpret thermal data in terms of risks, Francis Stoessel adopts a unique systematic how–to–do approach: Emphasis is on the data determination and its use for the design of safe processes. He presents the theoretical, methodological and experimental aspects of thermal risk evaluation, while reviewing the principles for mastering exothermal synthesis reactions on an industrial scale for the different common reactor types.

Each chapter begins with a case history illustrating the topic and presenting the lessons learned from the incident. In this way, Stoessel analyzes a goldmine of numerous examples stemming from industrial practice, additionally providing a series of problems or case studies at the end of each chapter.

Divided into three distinct sections, part one looks at the general aspects of thermal process safety, while Part 2 deals with mastering exothermal reactions. The final section discusses the avoidance of secondary, decomposition reactions, with methods given for their characterization in terms of consequences and triggering conditions, allowing the reader to determine safe process conditions.
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PART I: GENERAL ASPECTS OF THERMAL PROCESS SAFETY

INTRODUCTION

Case History

Chemical Industry and Safety

Risk Analysis

Safety Data

Systematic Search for Hazards

Key Factors for a Successful Risk Analysis

FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMAL PROCESS SAFETY

Case History: Storage during Week–End

Energy Potential

Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate

Heat Balance

Runaway Reactions

Problems

ASSESSMENT OF THERMAL RISKS

Case history: Sulfonation

Thermal Risks

Systematic Assessment Procedure

Assessment Procedures

Exercises

EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES

Case History: Diazotization

Calorimetric Measurement Principles

Choice of Instruments Used in Safety Laboratories

Problems

PART II: MASTERING EXOTHERMAL REACTIONS

GENERAL ASPECTS OF REACTOR SAFETY

Case history: Process Deviation

Dynamic Stability of Reactors

Example

BATCH REACTORS

Case History "Nitroaniline"

Principles of Batch Reaction

Strategies of Temperature Control

Isothermal Reactions

Adiabatic Reaction

Polytropic Reaction

Isoperibolic Reaction

Temperature Controlled Reaction

Key Factors for the Safe Design of Batch Reactors

Exercises

SEMI–BATCH REACTORS

Case history

Principles of Semi–Batch Reaction

Reactant Accumulation in Semi–Batch Reactors

Design of Safe Semi–Batch Reactors

Isothermal Reaction

Isoperibolic, Constant Cooling Medium Temperature

Non Isothermal Reaction

Strategies of Feed Control

Choice of Temperature and Feed Rate

Feed Control by Accumulation

Exercises

CONTINUOUS REACTORS

Case History

Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors

Tubular Reactors

Other continuous reactor types

TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF REACTOR SAFETY

Case history: "Process transfer"

Temperature control of industrial reactors

Heat exchange across the wall

Evaporative cooling

Dynamics of the temperature control system and process design

Exercises

RISK REDUCING MEASURES

Case History

Strategies of choice

Eliminating measures

Technical preventing Measures

Emergency measures

Design of technical measures

Exercises

PART III: AVOIDING SECONDARY REACTIONS

THERMAL STABILITY

Case History: Storage During Repair

Thermal Stability and Secondary Decomposition Reactions

Consequences of Secondary Decomposition Reactions

Triggering Condition

Experimental Characterization of Decomposition Reactions

Exercises

AUTOCATALYTIC REACTIONS

Case History: DMSO Recovery

Introduction

Characterization of autocatalytic reactions

Practical Safety Aspects for autocatalytic reactions

Exercises

HEAT CONFINEMENT

Case History

Heat accumulation situations

Heat balance

Heat balance with reactive material

Assessing heat accumulation conditions

Exercises

SYMBOLS
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Francis Stoessel
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