Now updated for its Second Edition, Thermodynamics of Pharmaceutical Systems provides pharmacy students with a much–needed introduction to the mathematical intricacies of thermodynamics in relation to practical laboratory applications. Designed to meet the needs of the contemporary curriculum in pharmacy schools, the text makes these connections clear, emphasizing specific applications to pharmaceutical systems including dosage forms and newer drug delivery systems.
Students and practitioners involved in drug discovery, drug delivery, and drug action will benefit from Connors′ and Mecozzi′s authoritative treatment of the fundamentals of thermodynamics as well as their attention to drug molecules and experimental considerations. They will appreciate, as well, the significant revisions to the Second Edition. Expanding the book′s scope and usefulness, the new edition:
Explores in greater depth topics most relevant to the pharmacist such as drug discovery and drug delivery, supramolecular chemistry, molecular recognition, and nanotechnologies
Moves the popular review of mathematics, formerly an appendix, to the front of the book
Adds new textual material and figures in several places, most notably in the chapter treating noncovalent chemical interactions
Two new appendices provide ancillary material that expands on certain matters bordering the subject of classical thermodynamics
Thermodynamics need not be a mystery nor confined to the realm of mathematical theory. Thermodynamics of Pharmaceutical Systems, Second Edition demystifies for students the profound thermodynamic applications in the laboratory while also serving as a handy resource for practicing researchers.
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
0. Review of Mathematics.
0.2. Dimensions and Units.
0.3. Logarithms and Exponents.
0.4. Algebraic and Graphical Analysis.
0.5. Dealing with Change.
0.6. Statistical Treatment of Data.
I BASIC THERMODYNAMICS.
1. Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics.
1.1. Fundamental Concepts.
1.2. The First Law of Thermodynamics.
1.3. The Enthalpy.
2. The Entropy Concept.
2.1. The Entropy Defined.
2.2. The Second Law of Thermodynamics.
2.3. Applications of the Entropy Concept.
3. The Free Energy.
3.1. Properties of the Free Energy.
3.2. The Chemical Potential.
4.1. Conditions for Equilibrium.
4.2. Physical Processes.
4.3. Chemical Equilibrium.
II THERMODYNAMICS OF PHYSICAL PROCESSES.
5. Introduction to Physical Processes.
5.2. Concentration Scales.
5.3. Standard States.
6. Phase Transformations.
6.1. Pure Substances.
6.2. Multicomponent Systems.
7. Solutions of Nonelectrolytes.
7.1. Ideal Solutions.
7.2. Nonideal Solutions.
7.3. Partitioning Between Liquid Phases.
8. Solutions of Electrolytes.
8.1. Coulombic Interaction and Ionic Dissociation.
8.2. Mean Ionic Activity and Activity Coefficient.
8.3. The Debye–Hückel Theory.
9. Colligative Properties.
9.1. Boiling Point Elevation.
9.2. Freezing Point Depression.
9.3. Osmotic Pressure.
9.4. Isotonicity Calculations.
10.1. Solubility as an Equilibrium Constant.
10.2. The Ideal Solubility.
10.3. Temperature Dependence of the Solubility.
10.4. Solubility of Slightly Soluble Salts.
10.5. Solubilities of Nonelectrolytes: Further Issues.
11. Surfaces and Interfaces.
11.1. Thermodynamic Properties.
III THERMODYNAMICS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES.
12. Acid–Base Equilibria.
12.1. Acid–Base Theory.
12.2. pH Dependence of Acid–Base Equilibria.
12.3. Calculation of Solution pH.
12.4. Acid–Base Titrations.
12.5. Aqueous Solubility of Weak Acids and Bases.
12.6. Nonaqueous Acid–Base Behavior.
12.7. Acid–Base Structure and Strength.
13. Electrical Work.
13.2. Oxidation–Reduction Reactions.
13.3. Electrochemical Cells.
13.4. pH Measurement.
13.5. Ion–Selective Membrane Electrodes.
14. Noncovalent Binding Equilibria.
14.2. The Noncovalent Interactions.
14.3. Binding Models.
14.4. Measurement of Binding Constants.
Appendix A Physical Constants.
Appendix B Kinetic Theory of Gases.
Appendix C Extrathermodynamic Relationships.
ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS.
Sandro Mecozzi received his PhD in 1996 from the California Institute of Technology, and joined the faculty of the Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, in 1999. He currently holds joint appointments in the departments of pharmacy and chemistry. His research interests include the areas of RNA recognition, fluorous self–assembly, and the development of novel drug delivery systems.