- a new chapter on wind power generation;
- a new section on wide–area measurement systems (WAMS) and their application for real–time control;
- an overview of lessons learned from wide–spread blackouts affecting North America and Europe in 2003, 2004 and 2006;
- enhanced treatment of voltage stability and control, and frequency stability and control;
- application of Lyapunov direct method to analyse and enhance stability of multi–machine power systems ;
- expanded coverage of steady–state stability using eigenvalue analysis, including modal analysis of dynamic equivalents.
The book continues the successful approach of the first edition by progressing from simplicity to complexity. It places the emphasis first on understanding the underlying physical principles before proceeding to more complex models and algorithms. The reader will appreciate the authors’ accessible approach as the book is illustrated by over 400 diagrams and a large number of examples.
Power System Dynamics: Stability and Control, Second Edition is an essential resource for graduates of electrical engineering. It is also a clear and comprehensive reference text for undergraduate students, and for practising engineers and researchers who are working in electricity companies or in the development of power system technologies.
List of Symbols.
PART I: INTRODUCTION TO POWER SYSTEMS.
1.1 Stability and Control of a Dynamic System.
1.2 Classification of Power System Dynamics.
1.3 Two Pairs of Important Quantities: Reactive Power/Voltage and Real Power/Frequency.
1.4 Stability of Power System.
1.5 Security of Power System.
1.6 Brief Historical Overview.
2. Power System Components.
2.1 Structure of the Electrical Power System.
2.2 Generating Units.
2.4 Transmission and Distribution Network.
2.6 Wide Area Measurement Systems.
3. The Power System in the Steady–State.
3.1. Transmission Lines.
3.3. Synchronous Generators.
3.4. Power System Loads.
3.5. Network Equations.
3.6. Power Flows in Transmission Networks.
PART II: INTRODUCTION TO POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS.
4. Electromagnetic Phenomena.
4.2. Three–Phase Short–Circuit on a Synchronous Generator.
4.3. Phase–to–Phase Short–Circuit.
4.5. Short Circuit in a Network and its Clearing.
5. Electromechanical Dynamics – Small Disturbances.
5.1. Swing Equation.
5.2. Damping Power.
5.3. Equilibrium Points.
5.4. Steady–State Stability of Unregulated System.
5.5. Steady–State Stability of the Regulated System.
6. Electromechanical Dynamics – Large Disturbances.
6.1. Transient Stability.
6.2. Swings in Multi–Machine Systems.
6.3. Direct Method for Stability Assessment.
6.5. Asynchronous Operation and Resynchronization.
6.6 Out–Of–Step Protection Systems.
6.7. Torsional Oscillations in the Drive Shaft.
7. Wind Power.
7.1 Wind Turbines.
7.2 Induction Machine Equivalent Circuit.
7.3 Induction Generator Coupled to the Grid.
7.4 Induction Generators with Slightly Increased Speed Range Via External Rotor Resistance.
7.5 Induction Generators with Significantly Increased Speed Range: DFIGs.
7.6 Fully Rated Converter Systems: Wide Speed Control.
7.7 Peak Power Tracking Of Variable Speed Wind Turbines.
7.8 Connections of Wind Farms.
7.9 Fault Behaviour of Induction Generators.
7.10 Influence of Wind Generators on Power System Stability.
8. Voltage Stability.
8.1. Network Feasibility.
8.2. Stability Criteria.
8.3. Critical Load Demand and Voltage Collapse.
8.4. Static Analysis.
8.5. Dynamic Analysis.
8.6. Prevention of Voltage Collapse.
8.7. Self–Excitation of a Generator Operating on a Capacitive Load.
9. Frequency Stability and Control.
9.1. Automatic Generation Control.
9.2. Stage I – Rotor Swings in the Generators.
9.3. Stage II – Frequency Drop.
9.4. Stage III – Primary Control.
9.5. STAGE IV – Secondary Control.
9.6. FACTS Devices in Tie–Lines.
10. Stability Enhancement.
10.1. Power System Stabilizers.
10.2. Fast Valving.
10.3. Braking Resistors.
10.4. Generator Tripping.
10.5. Shunt FACTS Devices.
10.6. Series Compensators.
10.7. Unified Power Flow Controller .
PART III: ADVANCED TOPICS IN POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS.
11. Advanced Power System Modelling.
11.1 Synchronous Generator.
11.2. Excitation Systems.
11.3. Turbines and Turbine Governors.
11.4. FACTS Devices.
12. Steady–State Stability of Multi–Machine System.
12.1. Mathematical Background.
12.2. Steady–State Stability of Unregulated System.
12.3. Steady–State Stability of The Regulated System.
13. Power System Dynamic Simulation.
13.1. Numerical Integration Methods.
13.2. The Partitioned–Solution.
13.3. The Simultaneous Solution Methods.
13.4. Comparison Between the Methods.
14. Power System Model Reduction – Equivalents.
14.1. Types of Equivalents.
14.2. Network Transformation.
14.3. Aggregation of Generating Units.
14.4. Equivalent Model of External Subsystem.
14.5. Coherency Recognition.
14.6. Properties of Coherency–Based Equivalents.