Arithmetic and Logic in Computer Systems. Wiley Series in Microwave and Optical Engineering

  • ID: 2181185
  • Book
  • 246 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A practical introduction to fundamentals of computer arithmetic

Computer arithmetic is one of the foundations of computer science and engineering. Designed as both a practical reference for engineers and computer scientists and an introductory text for students of electrical engineering and the computer and mathematical sciences, Arithmetic and Logic in Computer Systems describes the various algorithms and implementations in computer arithmetic and explains the fundamental principles that guide them.

Focusing on promoting an understanding of the concepts, Professor Mi Lu addresses:

  • Number representations, including the Conventional Radix and
  • Signed–Digit Number Systems as well as Floating Point, Residue, and Logarithmic Number Systems
  • Ripple Carry Adders and high–speed adders
  • Sequential multiplication, parallel multiplication, sequential division, and fast array dividers
  • Floating point operations, Residue Number operations, and operations through logarithms

To assist the reader, alternative methods are examined and thorough explanations of the material are supplied, along with discussions of the reasoning behind the theory. Ample examples and problems help the reader master the concepts.

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List of Figures.

List of Tables.

About the Author.

1. Computer Number Systems.

1.1 Conventional Radix Number System.

1.2 Conversion of Radix Numbers.

1.3 Representation of Signed Numbers.

1.3.1 Sign–Magnitude.

1.3.2 Diminished Radix Complement.

1.3.3 Radix Complement.

1.4. Signed–Digit Number System.

1.5 Floating–Point Number Representation.

1.5.1 Normalization.

1.5.2 Bias.

1.6 Residue Number System.

1.7 Logarithmic Number System.



2. Addition and Subtraction.

2.1 Single–Bit Adders.

2.1.1 Logical Devices.

2.1.2 Single–Bit Half–Adder and Full–Adders.

2.2 Negation.

2.2.1 Negation in One′s Complement System.

2.2.2 Negation in Two′s Complement System.

2.3 Subtraction through Addition.

2.4 Overflow.

2.5 Ripple Carry Adders.

2.5.1 Two′s Complement Addition.

2.5.2 One′s Complement Addition.

2.5.3 Sign–Magnitude Addition.



3. High–Speed Adder.

3.1 Conditional–Sum Addition.

3.2 Carry–Completion Sensing Addition.

3.3 Carry–Lookahead Addition (CLA).

3.3.1 Carry–Lookahead Adder.

3.3.2 Block Carry Lookahead Adder.

3.4 Carry–Save Adders (CSA).

3.5 Bit–Partitioned Multiple Addition.



4. Sequential Multiplication.

4.1 Add–and–Shift Approach.

4.2 Indirect Multiplication Schemes.

4.2.1 Unsigned Number Multiplication.

4.2.2 Sign–Magnitude Number Multiplication.

4.2.3 One′s Complement Number Multiplication.

4.2.4 Two′s Complement Number Multiplication.

4.3 Robertson′s Signed Number Multiplication.

4.4 Recoding Technique.

4.4.1 Non–overlapped Multiple Bit Scanning.

4.4.2 Overlapped Multiple Bit Scanning.

4.4.3 Booth′s Algorithm.

4.4.4 Canonical Multiplier Recoding.



5. Parallel Multiplication.

5.1 Wallace Trees.

5.2 Unsigned Array Multiplier.

5.3 Two′s Complement Array Multiplier.

5.3.1 Baugh–Wooley Two′s Complement Multiplier.

5.3.2 Pezaris Two′s Complement Multipliers.

5.4 Modular Structure of Large Multiplier.

5.4.1 Modular Structure.

5.4.2 Additive Multiply Modules.

5.4.3 Programmable Multiply Modules.



6. Sequential Division.

6.1 Subtract–and–Shift Approach.

6.2 Binary Restoring Division.

6.3 Binary Non–Restoring Division.

6.4 High–Radix Division.

6.4.1 High–Radix Non–Restoring Division.

6.4.2 SRT Division.

6.4.3 Modified SRT Division.

6.4.4 Robertson′s High–Radix Division.

6.5 Convergence Division.

6.5.1 Convergence Division Methodologies.

6.5.2 Divider Implementing Convergence Division Algorithm.

6.6 Division by Divisor Reciprocation.



7. Fast Array Dividers.

7.1 Restoring Cellular Array Divider.

7.2 Non–Restoring Cellular Array Divider.

7.3 Carry–Lookahead Cellular Array Divider.



8. Floating Point Operations.

8.1 Floating Point Addition/Subtraction.

8.2 Floating Point Multiplication.

8.3 Floating Point Division.

8.4 Rounding.

8.5 Extra Bits.



9. Residue Number Operations.

9.1 RNS Addition, Subtraction and Multiplication.

9.2 Number Comparison and Overflow Detection.

9.2.1 Unsigned Number Comparison.

9.2.2 Overflow Detection.

9.2.3 Signed Numbers and Their Properties.

9.2.4 Multiplicative Inverse and the Parity Table.

9.3 Division Algorithm.

9.3.1 Unsigned Number Division.

9.3.2 Signed Number Division.

9.3.3 Multiplicative Division Algorithm.



10. Operations through Logarithms.

10.1 Multiplication and Addition in Logarithmic Systems.

10.2 Addition and Subtraction in Logarithmic Systems.

10.3 Realizing the Approximation.



11. Signed–Digit Number Operations.

11.1 Characteristics of SD Numbers.

11.2 Totally Parallel Addition/Subtraction.

11.3 Required and Allowed Values.

11.4 Multiplication and Division.




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"...the perfect concise reference for computer arithmetic, and I highly recommended it to anyone involved in the study or implementation of such systems." (Computing, June 7, 2005)

"This comprehensive treatment of computer arithmetic is ideally suited for upper–level undergraduate or graduate students." (Computing, May 12, 2004)

"Lu has prepared one of the best books this reviewer has read .An Excellent book for graduate and senior undergraduate engineering and computer science students. (Choice, July 2004)

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