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Plant Secondary Metabolites. Occurrence, Structure and Role in the Human Diet. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 2182033
  • Book
  • October 2006
  • 384 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Plant secondary metabolites have been a fertile area of chemical investigation for many years, driving the development of both analytical chemistry and of new synthetic reactions and methodologies. The subject is multi-disciplinary with chemists, biochemists and plant scientists all contributing to our current understanding. In recent years there has been an upsurge in interest from other disciplines, related to the realisation that secondary metabolites are dietary components that may have a considerable impact on human health, and to the development of gene technology that permits modulation of the contents of desirable and undesirable components.

Plant Secondary Metabolites: Occurrence, Structure and Role in the Human Diet addresses this wider interest by covering the main groups of natural products from a chemical and biosynthetic perspective with illustrations of how genetic engineering can be applied to manipulate levels of secondary metabolites of economic value as well as those of potential importance in diet and health. These descriptive chapters are augmented by chapters showing where these products are found in the diet, how they are metabolised and reviewing the evidence for their beneficial bioactivity.

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1 Phenols, Polyphenols and Tannins: An Overview (Alan Crozier, Indu B. Jaganath and Michael N. Clifford).

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Classification of phenolic compounds.

1.3 Biosynthesis.

1.4 Genetic engineering of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

1.5 Databases.

2 Sulphur-Containing Compounds (Richard Mithen).

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 The glucosinolates-myrosinase system.

2.3 Chemical diversity of glucosinolates in dietary crucifers.

2.4 Biosynthesis.

2.5 Genetic factors affecting glucosinolate content.

2.6 Environmental factors affecting glucosinolate content.

2.7 Myrosinases and glucosinolate hydrolysis.

2.8 Hydrolytic products.

2.9 Metabolism and detoxification of isothiocyanates.

2.10 The Alliin-alliinase system.

2.11 Biological activity of sulphur-containing compounds.

2.12 Anti-nutritional effects in livestock and humans.

2.13 Beneficial effects of sulphur-containing compounds in the human diet.

3 Terpenes (Andrew J. Humphrey and Michael H. Beale).

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 The biosynthesis of IPP and DMAPP.

3.3 Enzymes of terpene biosynthesis.

3.4 Isoprenoid biosynthesis in the plastids.

3.5 Isoprenoid biosynthesis in the cytosol.

3.6 Terpenes in the environment and human health: future prospects.

4 Alkaloids (Katherine G. Zulak, David K. Liscombe, Hiroshi Ashihara and Peter J. Facchini).

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids.

4.3 Tropane alkaloids.

4.4 Nicotine.

4.5 Terpenoid indole alkaloids.

4.6 Purine alkaloids.

4.7 Pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

4.8 Other alkaloids.

4.9 Metabolic engineering.

5 Acetylenes and Psoralens (Lars P. Christensen and Kirsten Brandt).

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Acetylenes in common food plants.

5.3 Psoralens in common food plants.

5.4 Perspectives in relation to food safety.

6. Functions of the Human Intestinal Flora: The Use of Probiotics and Prebiotics (Kieran M. Tuohy and Glenn R. Gibson).

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Composition of the gut microflora.

6.3 Successional development and the gut microflora in old age.

6.4 Modulation of the gut microflora through dietary means.

6.5 In vitro and in vivo measurement of microbial activities.

6.6 Molecular methodologies for assessing microflora changes.

6.7 Assessing the impact of dietary modulation of the gut microflora-does it improve health, what are the likelihoods for success and what are the biomarkers of efficacy?

6.8 Justification for the use of probiotics and prebiotics to modulate the gut flora composition.

7 Secondary Metabolites in Fruits, Vegetables, Beverages and Other Plant-Based Dietary Components (Alan Crozier, Takao Yokota, Indu B. Jaganath, Serena Marks, Michael Saltmarsh and Michael N. Clifford).

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 Dietary phytochemicals.

7.3 Vegetables.

7.4 Fruits.

7.5 Herbs and spices.

7.6 Cereals.

7.7 Nuts.

7.8 Algae.

7.9 Beverages.

7.10 Databases.

8 Absorption and Metabolism of Dietary Plant Secondary Metabolites (Jennifer L. Donovan, Claudine Manach, Richard M. Faulks and Paul A. Kroon).

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Flavonoids.

8.3 Hydroxycinnamic acids.

8.4 Gallic acid and ellagic acid.

8.5 Dihydrochalcones.

8.6 Betalains.

8.7 Glucosinolates.

8.8 Carotenoids.

8.9 Conclusions.


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Alan Crozier University of Glasgow.

Mike N. Clifford University of Surrey.

Hiroshi Ashihara Department of Biology, Ochanomizu University, Tokyo.
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