Due to increasing economic and environmental issues concerning the use of petrochemicals, lignocellulosic materials will be relied upon as feedstock for the production of chemicals, fuels and biocompatible materials. Significant progress has been made to use lignocellulosic materials for the production of fuel ethanol and as a reinforcing component in polymer composites. Effective and economical methods for such uses, however, remain underdeveloped, partly due to the difficulties encountered in the characterization of the structures of native lignocelluloses and lignocelluloses–based materials. Improved methods for the characterization of lignocellulosic materials are needed.
Characterization of Lignocellulosic Materials covers recent advances in the characterization of wood, pulp fibres and papers. It also describes the analyses of native and modified lignocellulosic fibres and materials using a range of advanced techniques such as time–of–flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, 2D heteronuclear single quantum correlation NMR, and Raman microscopy. The book provides a survey of state–of–the–art characterization methods for lignocellulosic materials, for both academic and industrial researchers who work in the fields of wood and paper, lignocelluloses–based composites and polymer blends, and bio–based fuels and materials.
1) 2D heteronuclear (1H–13C) single quantum correlation (HSQC) NMR analysis of Norway spruce bark components.
2) Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Wood and Pulp Fibers.
3) Surface characterization of mechanical pulp fibres by contact angle measurement, polyelectrolyte adsorption, XPS and AFM.
4) Assessing Substrate Accessibility to Enzymatic Hydrolysis by Cellulases.
5) Characterization of alkyl ketene dimmer–sized papers by XPS and dynamic contact angle measurements.
6) Chemical Microscopy of Extractives on Fiber and Paper Surfaces.
Part 2. Characterization of Cellulose, Lignin and Modified Cellulose Fibres.
7) Deformation processes in cellulosics using Raman microscopy.
8) Life–time prediction of cellulosics by thermal and mechanical analysis.
9) Recent advances in the isolation and analysis of lignins and lignin–carbohydrate complexes.
10) Chemical Composition and Lignin Structural Features of Banana Plant Leaf Sheath and Rachis.
11) Recent advances in the characterization of lignosulfonates.
12) Integrated size–exclusion chromatography (SEC) analysis of cellulose and its derivatives.
13) 13C CPMAS NMR studies of wood, cellulose fibres and derivatives.
Part 3. Characterization of Lignocelluloses–based Composites and Polymer Blends.
14) Advances in the characterization of interfaces and the fiber surfaces in lignocellulosic fiber–reinforced composites.
15) Thermal and mechanical analysis of lignocelluloses–based biocomposites.
16) New insights into the mechanisms of compatibilization in wood–plastic composites.
17) X–ray powder diffraction analyses of kraft lignin–based thermoplastic polymer blends.
18) Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) of chemically cross–linked ethylcelluloses and ethylcellulose–methylcellulose blends.
19) DSC and AFM studies on chemically cross–linked sodium cellulose sulfate hydrogels.
20) Microscopic examination of cellulose whiskers and their nanocomposites