Despite a financial assessment of PF projects being fundamental to the lender s decision, there is little understanding of how the use of finance is perceived by individual stakeholders; why and how a financial assessment is performed; who should be involved; where and when it should take place; what data should be used; and how financial assessments should be presented.
The steps outlined in this guide provide a basic understanding for all those involved in structuring or assessing project finance. Secondary contracts involving constructors, operators, finance providers, suppliers and offtakers can be developed and assessed to determine their commercial viability over a project s life cycle.
Any uncertainty in financial markets prompts sponsors of construction project financings to carefully consider bank liquidity, the higher cost of finance, and general uncertainty for demand. This results in the postponement of projects and the drastic reduction of governments′ tax receipts, which in turn affects their ability to finance infrastructure projects.
Project Finance in Construction offers a structured process for determining the commercial viability of large construction projects procured with project finance (PF). It explains how to use economic metrics in the decision–making process and provides a detailed case study showing how stakeholders apply the concept of project finance.
This guide will enable students and academics involved in project finance as well as project managers worldwide to develop their own assessment structures and be confident in their use.
List of tables.
About the Authors.
1.1 The development of project finance.
1.2 Financial assessment.
What is financial assessment?
Why perform a financial assessment?
Who is involved in the risk assessment process?
Where should a financial assessment be performed?
When should a financial assessment be performed?
What data are to be used?
How should assessment outputs be presented?
1.3 Purpose of this guide.
1.4 Scope of the guide.
2 Project finance.
2.2 Definition of project finance.
2.3 The key characteristics of project finance.
Special project/purpose vehicle.
Off–balance sheet transaction.
Robust income stream of the project as the basis for financing.
2.4 Legal and financial considerations in project finance.
3 Financial instruments and cash flow modelling.
3.2 Debt finance.
3.3 Mezzanine finance.
3.4 Equity finance.
3.5 Sources of debt and equity.
3.6 Cash flow modelling and project financing.
4 Risk management.
4.3 Risk management process.
4.4 Typical risks in project financing.
5 The financial assessment process.
5.2 The financial assessment structure.
SPV and lender final assessment.
6 Case study.
6.2 Independent power project.
6.3 Supply and offtake contracts.
Applications of supply and offtake contracts.
6.4 Assumptions for initial assessment.
7 Developing the base case model.
7.2 SPV s initial assessment.
7.3 Identify the estimated activities, time, costs and revenues of the project.
7.4 Development of the base case model.
7.5 Identify major project risks.
7.6 Assessment of base case model incorporating risks.
8 Initial economic assessment by lenders.
8.2 Financial package assessment.
Finance package (1).
Finance package (2).
Finance package (3).
9 Financial engineering.
9.2 Financial instruments used in financial engineering.
Caps, floors, collars, swaptions and compound options.
9.4 Reappraising public private partnerships.
9.5 Techniques applied in the reappraisal of PPP concession agreement.
9.6 Other financial engineering techniques.
10 Final assessment to determine project commercial viability.
10.2 Detailed risk assessment.
10.3 Financial engineering.
Extending the concession.
Phasing construction and operation.
Existing concession revenues.
11 Financial close.
11.2 Due diligence.
Legal due diligence.
Trigger step in rights.
Model audit and sensitivity analysis.
Letters of credit.
Escrow and ring–fenced facilities.
11.3 Financial close.
Credit committee approval process.
Due diligence report.
Execute interest rate swaps.
12 Islamic finance and project finance.
12.2 Islamic finance.
Qiyas and Litihad.
12.4 Core principles of Islamic finance.
Sharing (profit/loss and risk).
No unfair gain.
No investments that are not in the public interest.
No hoarding of money.
Islamic financial institutions.
Shariah supervisory boards.
12.5 Project finance.
The Ijara principle.
Ijara Mawsufah Fi Al Dhimmah (forward lease).
Sukuk al Istisna′a.
A typical SAI deal.
12.6 Other Islamic finance techniques for projects.
Musharaka (equity financing).
Bai salam (forward financing).
12.7 Risks and liabilities.
13 Conclusions and recommendations.