Reliability Technology. Principles and Practice of Failure Prevention in Electronic Systems. Quality and Reliability Engineering Series

  • ID: 2182383
  • Book
  • 412 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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This text demonstrates how to achieve failure free equipment performance in electronic systems by studying the essential reliability technology disciplines that contribute to failure free product in design, development and manufacturing. It presents detailed accounts of established "hands–on" procedures for understanding potential failure mechanisms in materials and components, and identifies the many hazards from new product manufacture through end–of–life disposal.

Key features:

  • describes how product robustness is proven by non–destructive stress margin analysis
  • clearly delineates between accelerated ageing and accelerated life testing, and exposes the myth that all products must be treated as candidates for simultaneous multi–axis, multi–stress environmental forcing functions
  • provides details of proven methodologies for the development and implementation of cost effective environmental stress screening programmes covering different levels of product assembly
  • summarises other sources of environmental stress and their effect on product performance, robustness and ageing
  • covers the physical concepts governing the response of electronic products to steady state temperature extremes, temperature cycling, thermal and mechanical shock, and vibration

With classroom tested material, this book contains mathematical models so readers may gain a thorough understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to the erosion of hardware, functional robustness and durability. Case studies and unique worked examples examine the physical properties of individual electronic hardware designs.

This reference text is for quality and reliability engineers, manufacturing process engineers, environmental test engineers and design engineers in domestic, commercial and military electronics industries. It will also be of interest to advanced electrical and electronic engineering students studying power systems or reliability technology courses, also production, project and procurement managers in telecommunications, automotive and aerospace industries.

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Foreword by Michael Pecht.

Series Editor s Preface.

Preface.

About the Author.

Acknowledgements.

1 The Origins and Evolution of Quality and Reliability.

1.1 Sixty Years of Evolving Electronic Equipment Technology.

1.2 Manufacturing Processes From Manual Skills to Automation.

1.3 Soldering Systems.

1.4 Component Placement Machines.

1.5 Automatic Test Equipment.

1.6 Lean Manufacturing.

1.7 Outsourcing.

1.8 Electronic System Reliability Folklore versus Reality.

1.9 The Bathtub Curve.

1.10 The Truth about Arrhenius.

1.11 The Demise of MIL–HDBK–217.

1.12 The Benefits of Commercial Off–The–Shelf (COTS) Products.

1.13 The MoD SMART Procurement Initiative.

1.14 Why do Items Fail?

1.15 The Importance of Understanding Physics of Failure (PoF).

Summary and Questions.

References.

2 Product Lifecycle Management.

2.1 Overview.

2.2 Project Management.

2.3 Project Initiation.

2.4 Project Planning.

2.5 Project Execution.

2.6 Project Closure.

2.7 A Process Capability Maturity Model.

2.8 When and How to Define The Distribution Strategy.

2.9 Transfer of Design to Manufacturing The High–Risk Phase.

2.10 Outsourcing Understanding and Minimising the Risks.

2.11 How Product Reliability is Increasingly Threatened in the Twenty–First Century.

Summary and Questions.

References.

3 The Physics of Failure.

3.1 Overview.

3.2 Background.

3.3 Potential Failure Mechanisms in Materials and Components.

3.4 Techniques for Failure Analysis of Components and Assemblies.

3.5 Transition from Tin–Lead to Lead–Free Soldering.

3.6 High–Temperature Electronics and Extreme–Temperature Electronics.

3.7 Some Illustrations of Failure Mechanisms.

Summary and Questions.

References.

4 Heat Transfer Theory and Practice.

4.1 Overview.

4.2 Conduction.

4.3 Convection.

4.4 Radiation.

4.5 Thermal Management.

4.6 Principles of Temperature Measurement.

4.7 Temperature Cycling and Thermal Shock.

Summary and Questions.

References.

5 Shock and Vibration Theory and Practice.

5.1 Overview.

5.2 Sources of Shock Pulses in the Real Environment.

5.3 Response of Electronic Equipment to Shock Pulses.

5.4 Shock Testing.

5.5 Product Shock Fragility.

5.6 Shock and Vibration Isolation Techniques.

5.7 Sources of Vibration in the Real Environment.

5.8 Response of Electronic Equipment to Vibration.

5.9 Vibration Testing .

5.10 Vibration–Test Fixtures.

Summary and Questions.

References.

6 Achieving Environmental–Test Realism.

6.1 Overview.

6.2 Environmental–Testing Objectives.

6.3 Environmental–Test Specifications and Standards.

6.4 Quality Standards.

6.5 The Role of the Test Technician.

6.6 Mechanical Testing.

6.7 Climatic Testing.

6.8 Chemical and Biological Testing.

6.9 Combined Environment Testing.

6.10 Electromagnetic Compatibility.

6.11 Avoiding Misinterpretation of Test Standards and Specifications.

Summary and Questions.

References.

7 Essential Reliability Technology Disciplines in Design.

7.1 Overview.

7.2 Robust Design and Quality Loss Function.

7.3 Six Sigma Quality.

7.4 Concept, Parameter and Tolerance Design.

7.5 Understanding Product Whole Lifecycle Environment.

7.6 Defining User Requirement for Failure–Free Operation.

7.7 Component Anatomy, Materials and Mechanical Architecture.

7.8 Design for Testability.

7.9 Design for Manufacturability.

7.10 Define Product Distribution Strategy.

Summary and Questions.

References.

8 Essential Reliability Technology Disciplines in Development.

8.1 Overview.

8.2 Understanding and Achieving Test Realism.

8.3 Qualification Testing.

8.4 Stress Margin Analysis and Functional Performance Stability.

8.5 Premature Failure Stimulation.

8.6 Accelerated Ageing vs. Accelerated Life Testing.

8.7 Design and Proving of Distribution Packaging.

Summary and Questions.

References.

9 Essential Reliability Technology Disciplines in Manufacturing.

9.1 Overview.

9.2 Manufacturing Planning.

9.3 Manufacturing Process Capability.

9.4 Manufacturing Process Management and Control.

9.5 Non–invasive Inspection Techniques.

9.6 Manufacturing Handling Procedures.

9.7 Lead–Free Soldering A True Perspective.

9.8 Conformal Coating.

9.9 Production Reliability Acceptance Testing.

Summary and Questions.

References.

10 Environmental–Stress Screening.

10.1 Overview.

10.2 The Origins of ESS.

10.3 Thermal–Stress Screening.

10.4 Developing a Thermal–Stress Screen.

10.5 Vibration–Stress Screening.

10.6 Developing a Vibration–Stress Screen.

10.7 Combined Environment–Stress Screening.

10.8 Other Stress Screening Methodologies.

10.9 Estimating Product Life Consumed by Stress Screening.

10.10 An Environmental–Stress Screening Case Study.

Summary and Questions.

References.

11 Some Worked Examples.

11.1 Overview.

11.2 Thermal Expansion Stresses Generated within a PTH Due to Temperature Cycling.

11.3 Shear Tear–Out Stresses in Through–Hole Solder Joints.

11.4 Axial Forces on a Through–Hole Component Lead Wire.

11.5 SMC QFP Solder–Joint Shear Stresses.

11.6 Frequency and Peak Half–Amplitude Displacement Calculations.

11.7 Random Vibration Converting G2/Hz to GRMS.

11.8 Accelerated Ageing Temperature Cycling and Vibration.

11.9 Stress Screening Production Vibration Fixture Design.

References.

Appendix 1: Physical Properties of Materials.

Appendix 2: Unit Conversion Tables.

Index.

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Norman Pascoe
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