Endocrine Disrupters. Hazard Testing and Assessment Methods

  • ID: 2182416
  • Book
  • 416 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Enables researchers to assess the effects of endocrine disrupters as well as comply with new environmental regulations

Endocrine disrupters are chemicals both man–made and natural that interfere with the body′s endocrine system, potentially resulting in adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, and immune effects. In recent years, a number of regulatory authorities around the world have drafted or enacted legislation that requires the detection and assessment of the effects of endocrine disrupters on both humans and wildlife. In response, this book provides comprehensive, up–to–date information on the latest tested and proven methods used to detect and assess the environmental hazards posed by endocrine–disrupting chemicals.

Endocrine Disrupters is divided into chapters covering each major taxon as well as chapters dedicated to hazard assessment and regulation. The book covers testing methods for all the vertebrate groups and several invertebrate phyla, including:

  • Crustaceans and mollusks
  • Insects
  • Fish
  • Amphibians and reptiles
  • Birds and mammals

Moreover, the book emphasizes practical, ethical testing methods that combine sensitivity, efficiency, statistical power, and reasonable cost.

Each chapter is written by one or more international experts in ecotoxicology, offering readers step–by–step guidance for implementing each method based on the latest research and the authors′ firsthand laboratory experience. Furthermore, all the chapters have been subjected to a rigorous peer review and edited in light of the reviewers′ comments. References at the end of each chapter guide readers to the literature in the field.

Endocrine Disrupters is recommended for scientists who need to test chemicals for possible endocrine–disrupting properties. It is also recommended for regulatory authorities who need to decide whether particular chemicals can be safely marketed.

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Preface ix

Contributors xi

1 Ecotoxicity Test Methods for Endocrine–Disrupting Chemicals: An Introduction 1Peter Matthiessen

1.1 Background 1

1.2 Regulatory Concerns 2

1.3 Invertebrates 2

1.4 Vertebrates 3

1.5 Testing Schemes for EDCs 5

Reference 6

2 Endocrine Disruption inWildlife: Background, Effects, and Implications 7Dick Vethaak and Juliette Legler

2.1 Background to Endocrine Disruption 8

2.2 Effects of EDCs on Wildlife 19

2.3 Weight of Evidence and Ecological Significance of ED Effects 32

2.4 Implications for Effect Assessment and Toxicity Testing 36

2.5 Need for More Field Studies and an Integrated Approach 38

2.6 Concluding Points 39

References 40

3 The Regulatory Need for Tests to Detect EDCs and Assess Their Hazards toWildlife 59Hans–Christian Stolzenberg, Tobias Frische, Vicki L. Dellarco, Gary Timm, Anne Gourmelon, Taisen Iguchi, Flemming Ingerslev, and Mike Roberts

3.1 Emerging Concerns and Policy Responses: Focusing on EDCs as a Large Pseudo–Uniform Group of Substances 60

3.2 General Approaches in Substance–Related Regulatory Frameworks (EU) 80

3.3 How to Make EDC Definitions Operational for Substance–Related Regulatory Work 87

3.4 Future Perspectives 91

3.5 Conclusions 92

References 93

4 Techniques for Measuring Endocrine Disruption in Insects 100Lennart Weltje

4.1 Introduction 100

4.2 Methods 105

4.3 Discussion 108

4.4 Conclusion 110

4.5 Acknowledgments 110

References 110

5 Crustaceans 116Magnus Breitholtz

5.1 Introduction 116

5.2 Background to Crustacean Endocrinology 118

5.3 State of the Art: What Do We Know About Endocrine Disruption in Crustaceans? 121

5.4 Available Subchronic/Chronic Standard Test Protocols 128

5.5 Complementary Tools for Identification of Endocrine Disruption 129

5.6 Summary and Conclusions 132

References 134

6 Endocrine Disruption in Molluscs: Processes and Testing 143Patricia D. McClellan–Green

6.1 Background and Introduction 143

6.2 What Constitutes the Endocrine System in Molluscs? 145

6.3 End Points and Biomarkers of Endocrine Disruption 154

6.4 Current Test Methods Using Molluscs 164

6.5 Proposed Test Methods 167

6.6 Conclusions 171

References 172

7 Using Fish to Detect Endocrine Disrupters and Assess Their Potential Environmental Hazards 185Peter Matthiessen

7.1 Introduction 185

7.2 International Efforts to Standardize Fish–Based Methods for Screening and Testing Endocrine–Disrupting

7.3 Fish–Based Screens Developed by OECD for Endocrine–Disrupting Chemicals 189

7.4 Progress with Developing Fish Partial Life Cycle Tests for Endocrine Disrupters 194

7.5 Prospects for the Standardization of Fish Full Life Cycle and Multigeneration Tests 195

7.6 Strengths and Weaknesses of a Hazard Evaluation Strategy Based Partly on Available and Proposed Fish Screens and Tests 197

7.7 Conclusions 198

References 198

8 Screening and Testing for Endocrine–Disrupting Chemicals in Amphibian Models 202Daniel B. Pickford

8.1 Introduction 202

8.2 Potential Uses of Amphibians in Endocrine Disrupter Screening and Testing Programs 203

8.3 Embryonic Development 205

8.4 Hatching 208

8.5 Larval Development 209

8.6 Higher–Tier Tests with Amphibians 224

8.7 Other and Emerging Test Methods 227

8.8 Summary and Conclusions 229

References 232

9 Endocrine Disruption and Reptiles: Using the Unique Attributes of Temperature–Dependent Sex Determination to Assess Impacts 245Satomi Kohno and Louis J. Guillette, Jr.

9.1 Introduction 245

9.2 Approaches to Examine Effects of EDCs 252

9.3 Induction of Sex Reversal In Ovo 255

9.4 Analysis of Sex–Reversed Animals 260

9.5 Conclusions 265

References 266

10 Birds 272Paul D. Jones, Markus Hecker, Steve Wiseman, and John P. Giesy

10.1 Introduction 272

10.2 Differences Between Birds and Mammals and Among Bird Species 275

10.3 In Vitro Techniques 278

10.4 Studies with Embryos 280

10.5 In Vivo Techniques 280

10.6 Examples of EDC Effects from Field Studies 285

10.7 Proposed Two–Generation Test 288

10.8 Conclusions 291

References 292

11 Mammalian Methods for Detecting and Assessing Endocrine–Active Compounds 304M. Sue Marty

11.1 Introduction 304

11.2 Mammalian Tier 1 Screening Assays 306

11.3 Tier 2 Tests 326

11.4 Human and Wildlife Relevance of Estrogen, Androgen, and Thyroid Screening Assays 329

11.5 Potential Future Assays for Endocrine Screening 330

References 332

12 Application of the OECD Conceptual Framework for Assessing the Human Health and Ecological Effects of Endocrine Disrupters 341Thomas H. Hutchinson, Jenny Odum, and Anne Gourmelon

12.1 Introduction 342

12.2 Overview of the OECD Revised CF 343

12.3 Application of the Klimisch Criteria to the EE2 and VIN Case Studies 346

12.4 Case Study: Data Examples for 17–Ethynylestradiol 346

12.5 Case Study: Data Examples for Vinclozolin 357

12.6 Conclusions 367

References 368

13 The Prospects for Routine Testing of Chemicals for Endocrine–Disrupting Properties and Potential Ecological Impacts 373Peter Matthiessen

13.1 Introduction 373

13.2 Are There Gaps in the Test Suite for EDCs? 374

13.3 New Modes of Endocrine–Disrupting Action 376

13.4 How Should Tests for EDCs Be Deployed in an Integrated Fashion? 377

13.5 Use of Weight of Evidence when Assessing Possible EDCs 380

13.6 Conclusions 382

References 382

Index 385

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PETER MATTHIESSEN, PhD, is an aquatic ecotoxicologist who works as an independent consultant. Specializing in the study of endocrine disrupters, he has conducted extensive research into how sewage effluents cause feminization in wild male fish as well as how tributyltin–based antifoulants cause masculinization in wild female mollusks. Professor Matthiessen is a member of the UK Advisory Committee on Pesticides and Co–chair of the OECD Validation Management Group for Ecotoxicity Tests. He has contributed to the development of standardized ecotoxicity assays with sensitivity for endocrine disrupters as well as written guidance for the interpretation of the resulting data.

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