This book documents the current state of knowledge in occupational and residential exposure assessment and outlines ways exposure data are used in assessing the risks of pesticides to humans. The importance of developing standardized methods for measuring exposure, building mathematical models and interpreting data to foster internationally harmonized, scientifically sound decisions is discussed.
An Exposure Guidelines Reference List, including web sites, provides the reader quick access to primary international data sources from which more detailed information may be obtained. A Glossary of Terms that have international acceptance is also included to facilitate consistent understanding of the broad subject matter in this book.
This book critically reviews the current state of knowledge of pesticide exposure assessment and recommends ways to advance our ability to fully characterize and accurately assess potential exposure and risks. Many of the principles used in pesticide exposure assessment are applicable to other classes of chemicals, and it is hoped that this book will encourage cross–fertilization among disciplines. In particular, continued international cooperation and harmonization will be essential to ensure the protection of workers and the general public from adverse effects of pesticides.
Introduction and Overview (Claire A. Franklin and John P. Worgan).
Section One: Exposure Assessment Methodologies.
1. Assessment of Exposure for Pesticide Handlers in Agricultural, Residential and Institutional Environments (Richard A. Fenske and Edgar W. Day, Jr.).
2. Development of Risk–Based Restricted Entry Intervals (Gary K. Whitmyre, John H. Ross, Michael E. Ginevan and Delmont Eberhart).
3. Residential Post–Application Pesticide Exposure Monitoring (Robert G. Lewis).
4. Residential (Non–Dietary) Post–Application Exposure Assessment (Jeffrey Driver, John H. Ross, Muhilan Pandian, Jeff Evans and Curt Lunchick).
Section Two: Databases and Models.
5. Generic Operator Exposure Databases (Joop J. van Hemmen and Katinka E. van der Jagt).
6. Predictive Residential Models (Yoshihide Matoba and Mark P. van Veen).
Section Three: Epidemiology.
7. Exposure Assessment for Pesticides in Epidemiological Studies (Dick Heederik and Kay Teschke).
Section Four: Advances in Data Interpretation.
8. Probabilistic Approaches to Aggregate and Cumulative Risk Assessment (Robert L. Sielken, Jr.).
9. Dermal Absorption of Pesticides (Betty C. Hakkert, J.J.M. (Han) van de Sandt, Jos G.M. Bessems and Cees de Heer).
10. Occupational and Residential Exposure Assessment for Pesticides Towards a Harmonized Regulatory Approach (Christine A. Norman).