Systems of Systems

  • ID: 2182806
  • Book
  • 548 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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In recent years, the systems designed to support activity in the fields of banking, health, transportation, space, aeronautics, defense, etc. have become increasingly larger and more complex. With the growing maturity of information and communication technologies, systems have been interconnected within growing networks, yielding new capabilities and services through the combination of system functionalities. This has led to a further increasing complexity that has to be managed in order to take advantage of these system integrations.

The book is divided into two parts.   The first part addresses the concept and practical illustrations of a system of systems and is a multidisciplinary introduction to the notion of a systems of systems that is discussed extensively in the current scientific and technical literature. After a critical comparison of the different definitions and a range of various practical illustrations, this part provides answers to key questions such as what a system of systems is and how its complexity can be mastered.   The second part, described as systems–of–systems engineering: methods and tools , focuses on both engineering and modeling, and standardization issues that are critical to deal with the key steps in systems of systems engineering:   namely eliciting stakeholder needs, architecture optimization, integration of constituent systems, qualification, and utilization.

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Author Biographies xv

Introduction xix

PART 1. SYSTEMS OF SYSTEMS, CONCEPTS AND PRACTICAL ILLUSTRATIONS 1

Chapter 1. Systems of Systems: From Concept to Actual Development 3Dominique LUZEAUX

1.1. Network omnipresence creating a worldwide environment 3

1.2. Increasing complexity of the environment 5

1.3. Towards a definition of the concept of system of systems 11

1.4. Control of the system of systems 34

1.5. Tools for the control of the system of systems 47

1.6. The need for standardization 56

1.7. The human factor in systems of systems 58

1.8. Budgetary aspects of the systems of systems 68

1.9. The need for governance 70

1.10. Conclusion 75

1.11. Appendix: system of systems definitions in literature. 77

1.12. Bibliography 84

Chapter 2. Emergence and Complexity of Systems of Systems 89Patrice MICOUIN

2.1. Introduction 89

2.2. Matter and shape 90

2.3. Systems 92

2.4. Genesis of concrete systems 99

2.5. Complexity of systems of systems 107

2.6. Systems of systems engineering 111

2.7. Conclusion 115

2.8. Bibliography 116

Chapter 3. Contractual Aspects of the Acquisition and Use of Systems of Systems 119Danièle VÉRET

3.1. Introduction 119

3.2. An integrated set of components of various natures 121

3.3. Combining people with diversified skills and their contributions 125

3.4. Commitments to coordinate 130

3.5. Ownership rights 142

3.6. The most adapted legal strategies 147

3.7. Conclusion 148

Chapter 4. The Human Factor within the Context of Systems of Systems 149Jean–René RUAULT

4.1. Introduction 149

4.2. Definition and epistemological aspects 150

4.3. The issue 154

4.4. Current human factors in systems engineering 160

4.5. The organizations complexity from the standpoint of social sciences: impacts on the systems of systems 166

4.6. Social sciences implemented within the context of systems of systems 192

4.7. Recognizable good practices in the field of organizations 201

4.8. Conclusion 202

4.9. Acknowledgments 203

4.10. Bibliography 203

Chapter 5. Space Communication and Observation System of Systems 207Frédéric PRADEILLES and Dominique LUZEAUX

5.1. The dual context of omnipresent information and the commoditization of space 207

5.2. The technical view: an interconnection of ground–based and space–borne systems 209

5.3. Search for functionality and capacity 213

5.4. A logic of exchange on an international scale 214

5.5. Conclusion 220

5.6. Bibliography 221

Chapter 6. Intelligent Transport Systems 223Michel CHAVRET

6.1. The field of intelligent transport 223

6.2. ACTIF 226

6.3. Practical application 230

6.4. Conclusion 234

6.5. Bibliography 234

Chapter 7. Systems of Systems in the Healthcare Field 235Jean–René RUAULT

7.1. Introduction 235

7.2. From capability challenges to the design of systems of systems 236

7.3. Personal service, the main characteristic of systems within the healthcare field 239

7.4. Coordination of the medical and paramedical agents, in hospitals and in private practices 242

7.5. The development of information technologies and their interoperability, heart of the healthcare networks issue 245

7.6. Difficulties encountered 256

7.7. Conclusion 258

7.8. Acknowledgments 258

7.9. Bibliography 259

Chapter 8. Critical Infrastructure Protection 261Jean–Luc ZOLESIO

8.1. General context of critical infrastructure protection 261

8.2. Protection requirements 266

8.3. Security systems of the future 272

8.4. The human factor 285

8.5. Conclusion 290

Chapter 9. Globalization and Systemic Impacts 291Dominique LUZEAUX, Jean–René RUAULT and Lui KAM

9.1. Introduction 291

9.2. System of systems globalization 292

9.3. Beyond the concepts of systems 309

9.4. Globalization s impact on systems of systems engineering 312

9.5. Conclusion 316

9.6. Appendix: a summary of the properties of nonlinear dynamic systems 317

9.7. Bibliography 318

PART 2. SYSTEMS OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, METHODS, STANDARDS AND TOOLS 321

Chapter 10. Methods and Tools for Systems of Systems Engineering 323Dominique LUZEAUX

10.1. Systems of systems engineering: from the control of complexity to the necessity of a model–driven approach  323

10.2. Architecture 326

10.3. From architecture to detailed design: reference architectures 331

10.4. Requirement traceability and engineering tools 338

10.5. Reverse engineering and impact studies 342

10.6. Distributed simulation tools for model engineering 344

10.7. Global control of operational security via testability 346

10.8. Towards a virtuous circle of simulation–tests to control the tests 352

10.9. Collaborative work tools 357

10.10. Conclusion 360

10.11. Acknowledgements 361

10.12. Bibliography 362

Chapter 11. Model–driven Design and Simulation 363Lui KAM

11.1. General points 363

11.2. A few definitions 365

11.3. Model–driven engineering 378

11.4. Feedback 385

11.5. Conclusion and perspectives 392

11.6. Bibliography 394

Chapter 12. Standardization in the Field of Systems and Systems of Systems Engineering 399Jean–René RUAULT and Jean–Pierre MEINADIER

12.1. Introduction 399

12.2. Example of the importance of standards in the interoperability of systems and systems of systems 400

12.3. Standards used in the field of systems and systems of systems 403

12.4. Application and adaptation of system engineering standards in the context of systems of systems 433

12.5. Implementation of standards in the context of systems of systems 438

12.6. Conclusion 439

12.7. Acknowledgements 439

12.8. Appendix A. Standard relative to business process modeling 439

12.9. Appendix B. Standard relative to the Web services business process execution language 443

12.10. Appendix C. Ontology definition metamodel specification 444

12.11. Appendix D. UML profile for DoDAF/MODAF (USA Department of Defense and UK Ministry of Defense
Architecture Framework) 446

12.12. Appendix E. Standard relative to software–intensive systems architecture 451

12.13. Appendix F. Unified modeling language 454

12.14. Appendix G. Systems modeling language 457

12.15. Appendix H. Good practices of IT service management, ITIL 461

12.16. Appendix I. Standard relative to IT services management 464

12.17. Appendix J. Software engineering Product quality 466

12.18. Appendix J.1. Standard ISO 9126, part 1, quality model 466

12.19. Appendix J.2. Standard ISO 9126, part 3, internal metrics 468

12.20. Appendix K. Standard on software product quality requirements and evaluation 468

12.21. Appendix L. Standard on the common criteria for IT security evaluation 469

12.22. Appendix M. Standard relative to a system s life cycle process 473

12.23. Appendix N. Standard relative to the processes for engineering a system 482

12.24. Appendix O. Standard for the application and management of the systems engineering process 487

12.25. Appendix P. Standard relative to software life cycle processes 494

12.26. Appendix Q. Standard relative to software measurement process 499

12.27. Appendix R. Standard relative to software product evaluation  500

12.28. Appendix S. Standard on systems engineering, product and design data exchange 504

12.29. Appendix T. Standard on the exchange of product model data, products life cycle support 507

12.30. Bibliography 510

Conclusion 513

List of Authors 519

Index 521

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Dominique Luzeaux
Jean–René Ruault
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