This book presents reviews of various aspects of radiation/matter interactions, be these instrumental developments, the application of the study of the interaction of X–rays and materials to a particular scientific field, or specific methodological approaches.
The overall aim of the book is to provide reference summaries for a range of specific subject areas within a pedagogical framework. Each chapter is written by an author who is well known within their field and who has delivered an invited lecture on their subject area as part of the RX2009 X–rays and Materials colloquium that took place in December 2009 at Orsay in France.
The book consists of five chapters on the subject of X–ray diffraction, scattering and absorption.
Chapter 1 gives a detailed presentation of the capabilities and potential of beam lines dedicated to condensed matter studies at the SOLEIL synchrotron radiation source.
Chapter 2 focuses on the study of nanoparticles using small–angle X–ray scattering.
Chapter 3 discusses the quantitative studies of this scattering signal used to analyze these characteristics in detail.
Chapter 4 discusses relaxor materials, which are ceramics with a particularly complex microstructure. Chapter 5 discusses an approach enabling the in situ analysis of these phase transitions and their associated microstructural changes.
Chapter 1. Synchrotron Radiation: Instrumentation in Condensed Matter 1
Jean–Paul ITIE, François BAUDELET, Valérie BRIOIS, Eric ELKAÏM, Amor NADJI and Dominique THIAUDIÈRE
1.1. Introduction 1
1.2. Light sources in the storage ring 2
1.3. Emittance and brilliance of a source 6
1.4. X–ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation 8
1.5. X–ray absorption spectroscopy usingsynchrotron radiation 13
1.6. SAMBA: the X–ray absorption spectroscopy beam line of SOLEIL for 4 40 keV 20
1.7. The DIFFABS beam line 27
1.8. CRISTAL beam line 34
1.9. The SOLEIL ODE line for dispersive EXAFS 38
1.10. Conclusion 43
1.11. Bibliography 44
Chapter 2. Nanoparticle Characterization using Central X–ray Diffraction 49
2.1. Introduction 49
2.2. Definition of scattered intensity 50
2.3. Invariance principle 52
2.4. Behavior for large q: the Porod regime 55
2.5. Particle–based systems 59
2.6. An absolute scale for measuring particle numbers 75
2.7. Conclusion 78
2.8. Bibliography 79
Chapter 3. X–ray Diffraction for Structural Studies of Carbon Nanotubes and their Insertion Compounds 81
Julien CAMBEDOUZOU and Pascale LAUNOIS
3.1. Introduction 81
3.2. Single–walled carbon nanotubes 85
3.3. Multi–walled carbon nanotubes 96
3.4. Hybrid nanotubes 102
3.5. Textured powder samples 110
3.6. Conclusion 121
3.7. Bibliography 122
Chapter 4. Dielectric Relaxation and Morphotropic Phases in Nanomaterials 129
4.1. Introduction 129
4.2. Dielectric relaxation and morphotropic region: definition and mechanism 130
4.3. Relaxation, morphotropic region and size reduction 163
4.4. Conclusion 174
4.5. Acknowledgements 175
4.6. Bibliography 175
Chapter 5. Evolution of Solid–state Microstructures in Polycrystalline Materials: Application of High–energy X–ray Diffraction to Kinetic and Phase Evolution Studies 181
Elisabeth AEBY–GAUTIER, Guillaume GEANDIER, Moukrane DEHMAS, Fabien BRUNESEAUX, Adeline BENETEAU, Patrick WEISBECKER, Benoît APPOLAIRE and Sabine DENIS
5.1. Introduction 181
5.2. Experimental methods 183
5.3. Results 195
5.4. Conclusion 213
5.5. Acknowledgements 214
5.6. Bibliography 214
List of Authors 221
Philippe Goudeau is director of research at CNRS and head of the thin film mechanical properties team at the PHYMAT laboratory in Poitiers in France. His research concerns the study of size effects on the mechanical properties of thin films by X–ray diffraction in laboratory and on synchrotron sources.
René Guinebretière is Professor at ENSCI in Limoges, France. He teaches X–ray diffraction and materials physics. He carries out research into the development and characterization of oxide nanomaterials by X–ray diffraction at the SPCTS laboratory associated with CNRS.