Carbon Nanotubes and Related Structures. Synthesis, Characterization, Functionalization, and Applications

  • ID: 2183272
  • Book
  • 562 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Carbon′s special structures, such as diamond, graphite, and in particular fullerenes and nanotubes, have unique mechanical and electronic properties that have triggered a research boom over the past fifteen years. The resulting applications range from ultrahard films and supertensile materials to the exceptionally minute functionalities found in transistors, sensors, nanocontainers, and biomedical applications.

Written by the most prominent experts and pioneers in the field, this ready reference combines fundamental research, recent breakthroughs and real–life applications in one well–organized treatise. As such, both newcomers and established researchers will find here a wide range of current methods for producing and characterizing carbon nanotubes using imaging as well as spectroscopic techniques.

One major part of this thorough overview is devoted to the controlled chemical functionalization of carbon nanotubes, covering intriguing applications in photovoltaics, organic electronics and materials design. The latest findings on novel carbon–derived structures, such as graphenes, nanoonions and carbon pea pods, round off the book.

A practical guide for materials scientists, chemists, solid state physicists, electrical engineers, and those working in the semiconductor industry.
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CARBON NANOTUBES AND RELATED STRUCTURES: PRODUCTION AND FORMATION

Introduction

Carbon Nanotube Production

Catalysts

Growth Enhancement

Growth Mechanisms

Functionalization

Purification

Futures Perspectives

THEORY OF ELECTRONIC AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF DNA–SWNT HYBRIDS

Introduction

Physical Structure and Bonding in Nanotube–DNA Hybrids: A Short Review

Quantum Mechanical Modeling of the Hybrid Structure: Tight Binding Band Structure Calculation

Self–Consistent Computation Scheme: Acting Potential

Screening Factor and the Dielectric Permittivity

Polarization Component of Cohesion Energy of the SWNT–ssDNA Hybrid

Optical Absorption of SWNT–DNA Hybrids

Summary

ELECTROCHEMISTRY

Introduction

Electronic Properties of SWNTs

Electrode Potentials Versus Work Functions

Electrochemistry at SWNTs Versus Electrochemistry of SWNTs

Carbon Nanotubes for Electrochemical Sensors and Biosensors

Electrochemistry of Carbon Nanotubes

Cyclic Voltammetric Investigations of Solutions of Individual SWNTs

Vis–NIR Spectroelectrochemical Investigation of True Solutions of Unfunctionalized SWNTs

Standard Redox Potentials of Individual SWNTs in Solution

Fermi Level and Excitonic Binding Energy of the Nanotubes

Conclusions and Perspectives

PHOTOPHYSICS

Introduction

Molecular Nanoparticles: Carbon Nanotubes Have it All

Understanding Optical Properties

The Coulomb Interaction and Bound States

Colloidal Chemistry Facilitates Detailed Study of Nanotube Optics

Excited State Dynamics and Nonlinear Optics

Outlook

NONCOVALENT FUNCTIONALIZATION OF CARBON NANOTUBES

Introduction

Early Insights in the Noncovalent Interaction of CNTs with Solvents and Classical Macrocyclic Scaffolds

Noncovalent Interactions of CNTs with Small Aromatic Molecules

Noncovalent Interactions of CNTs with Heterocyclic Polyaromatic Systems

Noncovalent Interactions of CNTs with Surfactants and Ionic Liquids

Noncovalent Interactions of CNTs with Polymers

Optically Active SWCNTS

Noncovalent Interactions of CNTs with Nanoparticles

Summary and Conclusions

COVALENT FUNCTIONALIZATION OF CARBON NANOTUBES

Introduction

Chemical Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

Defect Group Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

Direct Sidewall Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

Conclusions

CARBON–BASED NANOMATERIAL APPLICATIONS IN BIOMEDICINE

Introduction

Carbon Nanotubes

Carbon Nanohorns

Carbon Nanodiamonds

Conclusions

GROUND AND EXCITED STATE CHARGE TRANSFER AND ITS IMPLICATIONS

Introduction

Ground and Excited State Features

Ground State Charge Transfer ? CNT as Electron Acceptors

Ground State Charge Transfer ? CNT as Electron Donors

Excited State Charge Transfer ? CNT as Excited State Electron Acceptor

Excited State Charge Transfer ? CNT as Ground State Electron Acceptor

Excited State Charge Transfer ? CNT as Ground State Electron Donor

Implications of Ground State Charge Transfer

Implications of Excited State Charge Transfer

PHOTOVOLTAIC DEVICES BASED ON CARBON NANOTUBES AND RELATED STRUCTURES

Introduction

Photovoltaic Cells Based on Carbon Nanotubes

Related Structures

Future Directions

LAYER–BY–LAYER ASSEMBLY OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL CARBON NANOTUBE THIN FILMS

Introduction

Structure and Properties of CNTs

Structural Organization in Multilayers of Carbon Nanotubes

Electrical Conductor Applications

Sensor Applications

Fuel Cell Applications

Nano–/Microshell LBL Coatings and Biomedical Applications

Conclusions

CARBON NANOTUBES FOR CATALYTIC APPLICATIONS

Introduction

Macroscopic shaping of CNTs

Specific Metal–Support Interaction

Dispersion of the Active Phase

Electrically and Thermally Conductive Supports

Mass Transfer Limitations

Confinement Effect

Conclusions

CARBON NANOTUBES AS CONTAINERS

Introduction

Mechanisms of Nanotube Filling

Fullerenes as Guest Molecules

Other Types of Molecules

Ionic Compounds

Nnaoparticles in Nanotubes

Concluding Remarks

CARBON NANOHORN

Introduction

Production

Structure and Growth Mechanism

Properties

Functionalization

Toxicity

Drug Delivery Applications

Summary

SELF–ORGANIZATION OF NANOGRAPHENES

Introduction

Single Sheets of Nanographenes

Organization in the Bulk State

Charge Carrier Transport Along Nanographene Stacks

Solution Aggregation and Fiber Formation

Solution Alignment on Surfaces

Thermal Processing

Nanographenes in Heterojunctions for Solar Cells

Processing of Nondiscotic Nanographenes

Conclusions

ENDOHEDRALS

Introduction

Recent Investigations in the Synthesis of Endohedral Metallofullerenes

Advances in Nonchromatographic Techniques for Separation on Endohedral Metallofullerenes

Structures of Endohedral Metallofullerenes Determined by X–Ray Crystallographic Method

Electrochemical Properties of Endohedral Metallofullerenes

Chemical Reactivity of Endohedral Metallofullerenes

Applications of Endohedral Metallofullerenes

Concluding Remarks

CARBON NANOSTRUCTURES: CALCULATIONS OF THEIR ENERGETICS, THERMODYNAMICS, AND STABILITY

Introduction

Energetics and Thermodynamics of Clusters

Stabilities of Empty Fullerenes

Stabilities of Metallofullerenes

Stabilities of Nonmetal Endohedral

Kinetic Control

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Dirk M. Guldi
Nazario Martín
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