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Environmental Engineering. Environmental Health and Safety for Municipal Infrastructure, Land Use and Planning, and Industry. Edition No. 6

  • ID: 2209114
  • Book
  • February 2009
  • 576 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
First published in 1958, Salvato's Environmental Engineering has long been the definitive reference for generations of sanitation and environmental engineers. Approaching its 50th year of continual publication in a rapidly changing field, the Sixth Edition has been fully reworked and reorganized into three separate, succinct volumes to adapt to amore complex and scientifically demanding field with dozens of specializations.

Updated and reviewed by leading experts in the field, this revised edition offers new coverage of industrial solid wastes utilization and disposal, the use of surveying in environmental engineering and land use planning, and environmental assessment. Stressing the practicality and appropriateness of treatment, the Sixth Edition provides realistic solutions for the practicing public health official or environmental engineer.

This volume, Environmental Health and Safety for Municipal Infrastructure, Land Use and Planning, and Industry, Sixth Edition, covers:

  • Municipal and industrial waste and pollution including landfills and facility, office and residential sanitation, and air quality

  • The environmental health of residential and institutional spaces such as homes and offices, including indoor air quality, sanitation, and the impact of substandard construction techniques

  • Land use planning and forensics techniques for investigating repurposed industrial and agricultural land

  • Air pollution and noise control

  • Surveying and mapping for environmental engineering

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Preface xvii

Contributors xix

Chapter 1 Industrial Solid Wastes Utilization and Disposal 1
Salah M. El-Haggar

Introduction 1

Life Cycle Assessment and Cradle-To-Cradle Concept 4

Industrial Waste 7

Plastics Industry 7

Thermo Plastics 9

Thermosets 12

Mixed Plastic Wastes 13

Plastic and Cork Industry 22

Food Industry 2

Aerobic Fermentation Process 25

Anaerobic Fermentation Process 29

Cement Industry 31

Utilization through Cleaner Production Techniques 33

Industrial Ecology Approach 34

Recycling Opportunities 36

Final Remarks 39

Marble and Granite Industry 40

Marble and Granite Waste 42

Physical and Chemical Properties of Slurry 43

Scrapes 44

Environmental Impacts and Mitigation 44

Metal Foundry Industry 51

Foundry Sand 53

Uses of Foundry Sand 54

Iron and Steel Industry 55

Environmental Impacts 56

The Problem in Egypt 58

Potential Utilization of Slag 58

Final Remarks 64

Waste Industry 65

Direct Waste Recycling Industry 66

Multiple Waste Recycling Industry 66

Waste Exchange Network Recycling Industry 67

Environmentally Balanced Industrial Complexes 69

Multiple Waste Recycling Industry 70

Mechanical Tests 71

Environmental Tests 73

Final Remarks 75

Disposal of Industrial Wastes 76

References 77

Bibliography 80

Chapter 2 Residential and Institutional Environment 83
Xudong Yang

Substandard Housing and Its effects 84

Growth of the Problem 84

Critical Period 86

Health, Economic, and Social Effects 88

Appraisal of Quality of Living 91

APHA Appraisal Method 91

Census Data 96

Health, Economic, and Social Factors 96

Planning 96

Environmental Sanitation and Hygiene Indices 97

Other Survey Methods 97

Health Principles 99

Minimum Standards Housing Ordinance 103

Housing Program 104

Approach 104

Components of a Good Housing Program 105

Outline of a Housing Program 107

Solutions to the Problem 108

Selection of Work Areas 110

Enforcement Program 111

Enforcement Procedures 114

Housing Form Paragraphs for Letters 118

Structural Safety 119

Incomplete Bathroom 119

No Hot Water 119

Leaking Water Closet 121

Floors Not Water Repellent 121

Exterior Paint Needed 123

Rotted and Missing Siding 123

Sagging Wall 123

Loose Plaster 124

Leaking Roof 124

No Gutters or Rain Leaders 124

No Handrails 125

Lead Paint 125

Refuse in Attic 125

Water-Closet Flush Tank Not Operating Correctly 125

Garbage Stored in Paper Box or Bag 125

Dilapidated Garbage Shed 125

Debris in Yard or Vacant Lot 126

Dirty Apartment 126

Overcrowded Sleeping Room 126

No Window in Habitable Room 127

Unlawful Third-Floor Occupancy 127

Unlawful Cellar Occupancy 127

Clogged Sewer 127

Unvented Heater 127

Furnace Flue Defective 128

Rubber-Hose Gas Connection 128

Rat Infestation 128

Roach Infestation 128

Overflowing Sewage Disposal System 128

Improperly Protected Well-Water Supply 129

Major Repairs 129

Minor Repairs 129

Obtain at Least Three Estimates 129

Plumbing 129

Plumbing Code 129

Backflow Prevention 134

Indirect Waste Piping 137

Plumbing Details 137

Indoor Air Quality 137

Causes and Sources of Indoor Air Pollution 137

Biological Contaminants and Health Effects 140

Other Contaminants 141

Ventilation 147

Respiratory Illness Control 150

Venting of Heating Units 151

Mobile Home Parks 154

Institution Sanitation 155

Institutions as Small Communities 155

Hospitals and Nursing Homes 156

Hospital and Related Wastes 160

Schools, Colleges, and Universities 163

Correctional Institutions 163

Environment Inspection and Report Outline 167

Day-Care Centers 169

References 169

Bibliography 174

Chapter 3 Solid Waste Management 177
George Tchobanoglous

Definition of Terms 178

Integrated Waste Management 180

Source Reduction 180

Recycling and Composting 182

Combustion (Waste-to-Energy) 183

Landfills 183

Implementing Integrated Solid Waste Management 184

Sources, Characteristics, and Quantities of Solid Waste 185

Sources of Solid Waste 185

Characteristics of Solid Waste 185

Commercial and Household Hazardous Waste 189

Construction and Demolition Debris 192

Special Wastes Collected Separately 193

On-Site Handling and Storage 195

Low-Rise Residential Areas 196

Low- and Medium-Rise Apartments 198

High-Rise Apartments 198

Commercial and Institution 199

Solid Waste Collection 199

Type of Service 199

Collection Frequency 199

Types of Collection Systems 202

Personnel Requirements 204

Health Issues 207

Transfer and Transport 209

Economic Analysis of Transfer Operations 209

Types of Transfer Stations 210

Vehicles for Uncompacted Wastes 211

Transfer Station Siting Issues 213

Waste Reduction and Materials Recovery 213

Waste Reduction 214

Materials Recovery and Recycling 217

Processing Technologies for the Recovery of Materials 218

Implementation of Materials Recovery Facilities 218

Technical Considerations in the Planning and Design of MRFs 224

Composting 225

Uses of Compost and Constraints to Its Use 229

Composting Process 230

Composting Technologies 232

Compost Process Design and Operational Considerations 236

Issues in the Implementation of Composting Facilities 239

Health Hazards 240

Sanitary Landfill Planning, Design, and Operation 242

Sanitary Landfill Planning 242

Sanitary Landfill Methods 246

General Landfill Design Issues 251

Leachate Generation, Control, and Treatment 252

Landfill Gas Generation, Control, and Recovery and Utilization 258

Management of Surface Waters 263

Landfill Mining 267

Landfill Facilities and Equipment for Disposal by Sanitary Landfill 268

Landfill Operation and Supervision 274

Summary of Recommended Operating Practices 276

Site Closure or Conversion 278

Incineration 279

Description of Operation of MSW Incinerator 279

Combustion Products and Residues 281

Types of Incinerators (Combusters) 283

Control of the Incineration Process 286

Residue Management 287

Site Selection, Plant Layout, and Building Design 289

Issues in the Implementation of Incineration Facilities 290

Hazardous Wastes 292

Definition of Hazardous Waste 292

Legislation 293

Generation of Hazardous Waste 296

Hazardous Waste Management 300

References 305

Bibliography 307

Chapter 4 Air Pollution and Noise Control 309
Robert Jacko and Timothy La Breche

Air Pollution 309

Health Effects 310

Economic Effects 311

Effects on Plants 314

Effects on Animals 315

Aesthetic, Climatic, and Related Effects 315

Sources and Types of Air Pollution 320

Manmade Sources 321

Natural Sources 321

Types of Air Pollutants 325

Sampling and Measurement 326

Particulate Sampling - Ambient Air 327

Gas Sampling 329

Smoke and Soiling Measurement 331

Stack Sampling 332

Measurement of Materials’ Degradation 333

Environmental Factors 333

Meteorology 334

Topography 338

Air Pollution Surveys 340

Inventory 340

Air Sampling 341

Basic Studies and Analyses 341

Ambient Air Quality Standards 342

Federal Standards 342

Clean Air Act of 1990 345

Clean Air Act Amendments of 1997 346

Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) 347

Controls 347

Source Control 347

Emission Control Equipment 351

Particulate Collectors and Separators 351

Gaseous Collectors and Treatment Devices 357

Dilution by Stack Height 358

Planning and Zoning 360

Air Quality Modeling 361

Program and Enforcement 363

General 363

Organization and Staffing 365

Regulation and Administration 365

Noise Control 367

Definitions and Explanation of Selected Terms and Properties of Sound 367

Effects of Noise - A Health Hazard 375

Sources of Noise 376

Measurement of Noise 377

Methods for Noise Control 378

Control of Industrial Noise 380

Control of Transport Noise 381

Noise Reduction 381

Federal Regulations 384

State and Local Regulations 387

References 388

Bibliography 391

Air Pollution 391

Noise Control 393

Chapter 5 Surveying and Mapping for Environmental Engineering 395
Kurt W. Bauer

Introduction 395

Importance of Maps 396

Basic Definitions and Concepts 396

Foundational Elements for Creation of Maps 396

Map Projections 398

Tangent Plane Projection 398

Lambert Projection 399

Mercator Projection 401

Transverse Mercator Projection 401

Other Projections 401

The State Plane Coordinate System 402

Survey Control Networks 402

The National Geodetic Survey Control System 403

U.S. Public Land Survey System 405

Map Requirements for Planning and Environmental Engineering 407

Desirable Control Survey and Mapping System 409

Applications of Mapping System 410

Flood Hazard Area Mapping 416

Wetland Area Mapping  416

Public Works Management Information System 419

Sanitary Sewerage System Attribute Data 421

Survey Methods 426

Bibliography 428

Chapter 6 Planning and Environmental Assessment 429
Kurt W. Bauer

Introduction 429

Definition of Terminology 430

Criteria for Good Planning 431

Institutional Structure for Urban Planning 432

The Comprehensive Plan 433

The Planning Process 437

Definition of Planning Area 438

Inventory and Analysis 438

Formulation of Objectives and Standards 443

Identification of Development Requirements 443

Development and Evaluation of Alternative Plans 444

Plan Selection and Adoption 444

Plan Implementation and Policy Development 445

Public Works Development Process 447

Outline for a Sewerage Facilities Planning Report 447

Outline for a Stormwater Management Facilities Planning Report 453

Outline for a Water Supply Facilities Planning Report 460

Public Participation 465

Continuing Nature of Comprehensive Planning Process 466

Project Planning 467

Site Planning 469

Introduction 469

Site Selection 470

Site Assessment 471

Generally Desirable Site Features 472

Site Inventory 473

Improvements Needed 478

Site Design 478

Land Subdivision 480

Subdivision Design 482

Site Selection and Assessment 484

Alternative Subdivision Design Types 486

Utility Services 492

Fiscal Analysis 494

Program Planning 494

Operational Planning 496

Public Health Element of Comprehensive Plan 497

Role of Engineering 502

Environmental Assessment and Impact Statements 503

Environmental Impact Analysis 505

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) 505

Terminology 506

Scoping 508

Recommended Format for Environmental Impact Statement 509

Content of an Environmental Impact Statement 510

Selection and Analysis of Alternatives 514

Comprehensive Assessment 515

Bibliography 524

Index 525

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Franklin J. Agardy President Forensic Management Associates, San Mateo, CA.

Patrick J. Sullivan Forensic Management Associates; California Institute of Technology.

Nelson L. Nemerow Consulting Environmental Engineering, Encinitas, CA.

Joseph A. Salvato New York State Department of Health, Albany, N.Y. Sanitary and Public Health Engineer.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown