- systemic assessment of needs
- interagency coordiantion
- evaluation of responses in real time
- evaluation in international and national jurisdictions
Our humanitarian impulse, as in the aftermaths of the Rwandan genocide, Hurricane Katrina, the Indian Ocean tsunami, and the January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, is an enduring quality. The route from donor to affected population is long and varied. When sudden, unprecedented needs are juxtaposed with expectional levels of charitable responses, the question is whether the responses were good enough. Did supply meet demand? Was it the right thing? Was it done well? Who received support? Was it appropriate? Was the timing right? Can it be improved? All are questions for evaluation. For populations traumatized by disaster, the answers have consequences for protection, for restoration of individual and community efficacy, and ultimately for hope and dignity.
This is the 126th volume of the volume of the Jossey–Bass quarterly report series New Directions for Evaluation, an official publication of the American Evaluation Association.
1. Enhancing Disaster and Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Through Evaluation (Liesel Ashley Ritchie, Wayne MacDonald)
This chapter presents a multidimensional framework as a foundation for dialogue and consideration of critical issues associated with evaluation of disaster and emergency preparedness, response, and recovery activities.
2. Real–Time Evaluation in Humanitarian Emergencies (Emery Brusset, John Cosgrave, Wayne MacDonaldi)This chapter examines real–time evaluation (RTE) as formative evaluation and as a disaster management tool. Linkages to existing methods are made, and the utility and effectiveness of RTE in the international context of intra– and interagency efforts are discussed.
3. The Interagency Health and Nutrition Evaluation Initiative in Humanitarian Crises: Moving From Single–Agency to Joint, Sectorwide Evaluations (Olga Bornemisza, André Griekspoor, Nadine Ezard, Egbert Sondorp)
The Interagency Health and Nutrition Evaluation (IHE) initiative was established in 2003 as part of the growing international momentum for interagency or joint evaluations of humanitarian response. This chapter outlines the efforts of this initiative, discusses lessons learned, and identifies options for institutionalizing IHEs.
4. Save the Children′s Approach to Emergency Evaluation and Learning: Evolution in Policy and Practice (Megan Steinke–Chase, Danielle Tranzilloi)The humanitarian assistance sector has developed globally from a state of spontaneous and disjointed approaches, striving to be more deliberate, coordinated, and accountable. This chapter explores Save the Children′s advances in emergency evaluation, and discusses efforts to internalize sector standards, ensure participation of affected populations, strengthen coordination across the sector, and increase impact measurement of emergency response.
5. Logic Modeling as a Tool to Prepare to Evaluate Disaster and Emergency Preparedness, Response, and Recovery in Schools (Kathy Zantal–Wiener, Thomas J. Horwood)
A comprehensive evaluation framework to prepare for evaluating school emergency management programs is proposed. This framework involves a logic model incorporating Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) measures as a foundation for comprehensive evaluation that complements performance monitoring used by the U.S. Department of Education as part of its Readiness and Emergency Management for Schools (REMS) grant program.
6. Evolution of a Monitoring and Evaluation System in Disaster Recovery: Learning From the Katrina Aid Today National Case Management Consortium (Amanda Janis, Kelly M. Stiefel, Celine C. Carbullido)
In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) funded the United Methodist Committee on Relief to form a consortium of partner agencies to provide disaster recovery case management services throughout the United States. This chapter describes the monitoring and evaluation (M&E) system of the Katrina Aid Today (KAT) program, highlighting challenges and lessons learned.
7. Evaluating Disaster Education: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration′s TsunamiReady Community Program and Risk Awareness Education Efforts in New Hanover County, North Carolina (Jennifer Horan, Liesel Ashley Ritchie, Stephen Meinhold, Duane A. Gill, Bruce F. Houghton, Chris E. Gregg, Tom Matheson, Douglas Paton, David Johnston)
This chapter presents research evaluating the impact of educational materials distributed in New Hanover County, North Carolina, about tsunamis. The authors contend that a community′s hazard experiences and the frequency and severity of hazard events play an important role in receptiveness to educational efforts, as well as disaster preparedness.
8. Disasters, Crises, and Unique Populations: Suggestions for Survey Research (Patric R. Spence, Kenneth A. Lachlan)
Researchers and evaluators in disaster contexts are often criticized for methodological decisions concerning data collection, randomization, and generalizability. This chapter discusses these issues, outlining the difficulties of randomization, problems stemming from the absence of randomization, and potential solutions to these problems.
9. Evaluation of Disaster and Emergency Management: Do No Harm, But Do Better (Liesel Ashley Ritchie, Wayne MacDonald)
This chapter reflects on current practices in disaster and emergencymanagement evaluation to advance our understanding of effective strategies in coordination, governance, methods, and further research.
Liesel Ashley Ritchie is assistant director for Research at the University of Colorado′s Natural Hazards Center.
Wayne MacDonald is director of Corporate Performance and Evaluation with Canada′s Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council in Ottawa.