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Making RTI Work. How Smart Schools are Reforming Education through Schoolwide Response-to-Intervention

  • ID: 2213593
  • Book
  • December 2009
  • 336 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Making RTI Work

Although Response–to–Intervention (RTI) a series of increasingly intensive interventions with struggling students is mandated at schools across the country, many schools are finding it difficult to implement successfully. Making RTI Work offers proven guidelines for implementing RTI effectively in any school setting urban, suburban, or rural. Written by Wayne Sailor, who recently directed a major national study in the area of RTI and Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support funded by the U.S. Department of Education, this important resource explains how successful schools using RTI manage the process and put the various components of the program into action. Filled with helpful real–world examples, the book shows how the RTI process can work effectively in addressing both academic and behavioral challenges. Step by step, Sailor outlines the best practices for implementing RTI at the classroom level, school–wide, district–wide, and statewide level.

Making RTI Work offers educators and school leaders the knowledge and tools they need to establish and sustain an effective RTI program that will help ensure that all students succeed.

Praise for Making RTI Work

"At its heart, school reform is about great teachers and great teaching. RTI is one of the most powerful tools to support great teaching, and...Sailor shows how it can be implemented most effectively."
Michelle Rhee, M.P.P., chancellor, District of Columbia Public Schools

"The promises and possibilities of RTI become real in this book. Sailor′s refreshing approach makes the content accessible and doable for general and special educators; school administrators, counselors and psychologists; district and state leaders; and community and family members."
George Sugai, Ph.D., Carole J. Neag endowed chair and professor, Neag School of Education, University of Connecticut, Storrs

"For educators who work in the complex world of America′s schools, Sailor offers a path forward."
Elizabeth B. Kozleski, Ed.D., professor and principal investigator, The Equity Alliance, Arizona State University

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Figures and Tables.

Foreword (Leonard Burrello).


The Author.


Part One: The Origin and Design of Schoolwide RTI.

1 Defining RTI.

Features of RTI.

Standard Protocol RTI.

Schoolwide RTI.

Evolving Definitions of RTI.

Standard Protocol Definitions.

Combined Standard Protocol and Problem–Solving Definitions.

Schoolwide Definitions.

Comprehensive Schoolwide RTI.

To Sum Up.

2 Schoolwide RTI: Why Does It Matter?

The Frame of Disability.

RTI as a Potential Frame for Education Policy.

A Focus on literacy.

A Shifting Perspective.

RTI as a Basis for Education Policy.


Problem Identification.



A Focus on Sociobehavioral Factors.

RTI and Academic Progress.

Transdisciplinary Problem–Solving Teams.

Decision Rules for Selecting Interventions.

To Sum Up.

3 The Social–Behavioral Side of RTI.

School Discipline.

The Tactic of Exclusion.

The Tactic of Inclusion.

Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support.

Understanding SWPBS.

Evidence–Based Practice.

Practical, Multicomponent Interventions.

  Lifestyle Outcomes.

Sustainable Systems Change.

To Sum Up.

Part Two: How Schoolwide RTI Works.

4 Universal Screening for Prevention.

Determining Success Criteria.

Behavioral Screening Under RTI.

School–Based Screeners for Behavioral Risk.

Internalizers or Externalizers.

Standardized Screeners for Behavioral Risk.

Systematic Screening for Behavioral Disorders.

Academic Screening Under RTI.

Universal Academic Screening.

Screening Accuracy and Efficiency.

Normative and Criterion Referenced Screeners.

Curriculum Based Measures.

Universal CBM.


Advantages of Universal CBM Screening for Teachers.

Combining Results of Behavioral and Academic Screening Under RTI.

RTI Team Processes and Coaches.

RTI and School Teams.


To Sum Up.

5 Progress Monitoring to Measure Success.

Educational Accountability.

Types of Assessment for Progress Monitoring.

Proximal Versus Distal Assessments.

Formative Versus Summative Assessments.

Categorical Versus Aggregate Assessments.

Behavioral Progress Monitoring.

Direct Measures of Problem Behavior.

Level 3 Progress Monitoring for Behavior.

Wraparound and SIMEO.

Academic Progress Monitoring.

Level 1 Progress Monitoring.

Level 2 Progress Monitoring.

Level 3 Progress Monitoring.

RTI and the Organization of Service and Supports.

To Sum Up.

6 Sustaining RTI Through School Reform.

Challenges Confronting Schoolwide RTI.

Silos Revisited.

Human Capital.

Professional Development.

School Reform as a Context for RTI.

Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration Project.

A Universal Design for Learning.

The Schoolwide Applications Model.

Fidelity of Implementation.

SAM Fidelity Assessment Tool.

Scaling Up School Reform.

Moving Schoolwide RTI to Scale in a District.

Action Planning in Schoolwide RTI.

Program Evaluation.

Structural Elements of SAM.

A Model for Technical Assistance.

District and Site Leadership Teams.

To Sum Up.

Part Three: Seeing RTI in Action

7 How RTI Looks at the Schoolwide Level.

Critical Features of Schoolwide RTI.

RTI and the Achievement Gap.

Student Motivation.

School–Based Video.

Leadership and Structure of the RTI School.

Distributed Leadership.

Leadership Teams.

Madison Elementary School.

Screening at Madison.

Building–Level Versus State–Level Assessments.

Reading Interventions.

Fidelity of Intervention.

Professional Development.


Reflections on Madison Elementary School s RTI.

Coaching and Collaborative Teaching.


Collaborative Teaching.

To Sum Up.

8 How RTI Looks at the Districtwide Level.

Scaling Up in the District.

Creating Some Fanfare.

Policy Analysis.

Engaging the Board of Education.

Managing Publicity.

Getting Started in the District: Selecting Schools.

Clusters and Cohorts.

Leadership Qualities.

Manageable Cohorts.

Professional Development.

Capacity Building.

RTI in the Louisiana Recovery School District, New Orleans.

RTI Team.

Progress Monitoring.

Level 1 Interventions.

Level 2 Interventions.

Level 3 Interventions.

The Role of Special Education.

Reflections on the Recovery School District.

To Sum Up.

9 How RTI Looks at the Statewide Level.

Federal Policy and RTI.

Kansas Multi–Tiered System of Support.

Colorado Multi–Tiered Model of Intervention and Instruction.

New Hampshire Responds Model.

State Request for Application.

Components of New Hampshire Responds.

To Sum Up.

Conclusion: The Shape of Schools to Come.

No Child Left Behind and Adequate Yearly Progress.

A Privatization Agenda?

Response to Intervention.

Three Facets of Teaching.




A Framework, Not a Magic Bullet.

RTI for the Endangered School.

Capacity Building and Sustainability.




Potential Traps in Implementing RTI.

Multilevel Sets of Interventions


Progress Monitoring.



The Undeniable Thrill of Success.

To Sum Up.

Sources, References, and Additional Resources.


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Wayne Sailor
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