How can classrooms become places of intellectual stimulation where learning is viewed not in test scores but in the development of individuals who can think, plan, create, question, and engage independently as learners?
Making Thinking Visible offers educators research–based solutions for creating just such cultures of thinking. This innovative book unravels the mysteries of thinking and its connection to understanding and engagement. It then takes readers inside diverse learning environments to show how thinking can be made visible at any grade level and across all subject areas through the use of effective questioning, listening, documentation, and facilitative structures called thinking routines. These routines, designed by researchers at Project Zero at Harvard, scaffold and support one′s thinking. By applying these processes, thinking becomes visible as learners′ ideas are expressed, discussed, and reflected upon.
Making Thinking Visible includes a DVD of instructive video clips featuring visible thinking strategies being applied in a variety of classrooms.
Praise for Making Thinking Visible
"There is a worldwide movement afoot to make the development of the intellect a priority for education in the twenty–first century. This book will become a landmark in that journey."
Arthur L. Costa, Ed.D., professor emeritus, California State University, Sacramento; coauthor, Habits of Mind series
"Making Thinking Visible is essential reading for every educator who strives to provide students with the skills they need to become thoughtful and enthusiastic directors of their own learning."
Tina Blythe, author, The Teaching for Understanding Guide and Looking Together at Student Work
"When thinking is made visible, learning is inevitable. Making Thinking Visible invites the reader to craft a new definition of education and presents a dramatic leap forward for education."
Adam Scher, school principal, Bloomfield Hills Schools, Michigan
List of Figures and Tables ix
DVD Contents xi
About the Authors xxv
PART ONE Some Thinking About Thinking 1
ONE Unpacking Thinking 3
Beyond Bloom 6
Beyond Memorization, Work, and Activity 8
A Map of Thinking Involved in Understanding 11
Other Kinds of Thinking 14
Uncovering Students′ Thinking About Thinking 15
TWO Putting Thinking at the Center of the Educational Enterprise 23
How Does Visibility Serve Both Learning and Teaching? 27
How Can We Make the Invisible Visible? 30
PART TWO Using Thinking Routines to Make Thinking Visible 41
THREE Introduction to Thinking Routines 43
ThreeWays of Looking at Thinking Routines 45
How Are the Thinking Routines Organized? 49
FOUR Routines for Introducing and Exploring Ideas 53
Zoom In 64
Chalk Talk 78
3–2–1 Bridge 86
Compass Points 93
The Explanation Game 101
FIVE Routines for Synthesizing and Organizing Ideas 109
CSI: Color, Symbol, Image 119
Generate–Sort–Connect–Elaborate: Concept Maps 125
The 4C′s 140
The Micro Lab Protocol 147
I Used to Think. . . , Now I Think . . . 154
SIX Routines for Digging Deeper into Ideas 163
What Makes You Say That? 165
Circle of Viewpoints 171
Step Inside 178
Red Light, Yellow Light 185
PART THREE Bringing the Power of Visible Thinking to Life 215
SEVEN Creating a Place Where Thinking Is Valued, Visible, and Actively Promoted 217
Making Room for Reflection 222
Making Time for Our Own Learning 229
The Making of an Elaborated Conversation 234
The Forces That Shape Culture 240
EIGHT Notes from the Field 247
The Challenges of Making Thinking Visible in a Mathematics Class and Beyond: The Case of Mark Church 250
Content + Routines + Students = A Culture of Thinking: The Case of Sharonne Blum 256
What These Cases Reveal About the Use of Routines 261
Stages of Development in the Use of Thinking Routines 262
Common Pitfalls and Struggles 267
In Conclusion 272
How to Use the DVD 293
Ron Ritchhart, Ed.D. is a senior researcher at Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education. He is the author of Intellectual Character from Jossey–Bass.
Mark Church is the Learning, Assessment, and Instructional Resource Supervisor for the Traverse City Area Public Schools in Michigan.
Karin Morrison is director of The Development Centre at Independent Schools Victoria, Australia and instructor for the WIDE World online course, Making Thinking Visible, at Harvard.