Making Thinking Visible. How to Promote Engagement, Understanding, and Independence for All Learners

  • ID: 2215124
  • Book
  • 320 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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How can classrooms become places of intellectual stimulation where learning is viewed not in test scores but in the development of individuals who can think, plan, create, question, and engage independently as learners?

Making Thinking Visible offers educators research–based solutions for creating just such cultures of thinking. This innovative book unravels the mysteries of thinking and its connection to understanding and engagement. It then takes readers inside diverse learning environments to show how thinking can be made visible at any grade level and across all subject areas through the use of effective questioning, listening, documentation, and facilitative structures called thinking routines. These routines, designed by researchers at Project Zero at Harvard, scaffold and support one′s thinking. By applying these processes, thinking becomes visible as learners′ ideas are expressed, discussed, and reflected upon.

Making Thinking Visible includes a DVD of instructive video clips featuring visible thinking strategies being applied in a variety of classrooms.

Praise for Making Thinking Visible

"There is a worldwide movement afoot to make the development of the intellect a priority for education in the twenty–first century. This book will become a landmark in that journey."
Arthur L. Costa, Ed.D., professor emeritus, California State University, Sacramento; coauthor, Habits of Mind series

"Making Thinking Visible is essential reading for every educator who strives to provide students with the skills they need to become thoughtful and enthusiastic directors of their own learning."
Tina Blythe, author, The Teaching for Understanding Guide and Looking Together at Student Work

"When thinking is made visible, learning is inevitable. Making Thinking Visible invites the reader to craft a new definition of education and presents a dramatic leap forward for education."
Adam Scher, school principal, Bloomfield Hills Schools, Michigan

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List of Figures and Tables ix

DVD Contents xi

Foreword xiii

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xxi

About the Authors xxv

PART ONE Some Thinking About Thinking 1

ONE Unpacking Thinking 3

Beyond Bloom 6

Beyond Memorization, Work, and Activity 8

A Map of Thinking Involved in Understanding 11

Other Kinds of Thinking 14

Uncovering Students′ Thinking About Thinking 15

TWO Putting Thinking at the Center of the Educational Enterprise 23

How Does Visibility Serve Both Learning and Teaching? 27

How Can We Make the Invisible Visible? 30

PART TWO Using Thinking Routines to Make Thinking Visible 41

THREE Introduction to Thinking Routines 43

ThreeWays of Looking at Thinking Routines 45

How Are the Thinking Routines Organized? 49

FOUR Routines for Introducing and Exploring Ideas 53

See–Think–Wonder 55

Zoom In 64

Think–Puzzle–Explore 71

Chalk Talk 78

3–2–1 Bridge 86

Compass Points 93

The Explanation Game 101

FIVE Routines for Synthesizing and Organizing Ideas 109

Headlines 111

CSI: Color, Symbol, Image 119

Generate–Sort–Connect–Elaborate: Concept Maps 125

Connect–Extend–Challenge 132

The 4C′s 140

The Micro Lab Protocol 147

I Used to Think. . . , Now I Think . . . 154

SIX Routines for Digging Deeper into Ideas 163

What Makes You Say That? 165

Circle of Viewpoints 171

Step Inside 178

Red Light, Yellow Light 185

Claim–Support–Question 191

Tug–of–War 199

Sentence–Phrase–Word 207

PART THREE Bringing the Power of Visible Thinking to Life 215

SEVEN Creating a Place Where Thinking Is Valued, Visible, and Actively Promoted 217

Making Room for Reflection 222

Making Time for Our Own Learning 229

The Making of an Elaborated Conversation 234

The Forces That Shape Culture 240

EIGHT Notes from the Field 247

The Challenges of Making Thinking Visible in a Mathematics Class and Beyond: The Case of Mark Church 250

Content + Routines + Students = A Culture of Thinking: The Case of Sharonne Blum 256

What These Cases Reveal About the Use of Routines 261

Stages of Development in the Use of Thinking Routines 262

Common Pitfalls and Struggles 267

In Conclusion 272

References 275

Index 281

How to Use the DVD 293

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Ron Ritchhart, Ed.D. is a senior researcher at Project Zero, Harvard Graduate School of Education. He is the author of Intellectual Character from Jossey–Bass.

Mark Church is the Learning, Assessment, and Instructional Resource Supervisor for the Traverse City Area Public Schools in Michigan.

Karin Morrison is director of The Development Centre at Independent Schools Victoria, Australia and instructor for the WIDE World online course, Making Thinking Visible, at Harvard.

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