Efficiency in Learning offers a road map of the most effective ways to use the three fundamental communication of training: visuals, written text, and audio. Regardless of how you are delivering your training materials in the classroom, in print, by synchronous or asynchronous media the book′s methods are easily applied to your lesson presentations, handouts, reference guides, or e–learning screens. Designed to be a down–to–earth resource for all instructional professionals, this book is clearly illustrated with real–world examples.
Efficiency in Learning guidelines are proven to accelerate learning by helping you avoid common pitfalls such as split attention and redundancy in your presentations and content. In addition, the authors summarize the research evidence and the psychological reasons for the guidelines, so you will know not only what to do, but also why you are doing it.
Efficiency in Learning comes with a companion CD–ROM that includes sample lessons and video commentary from John Sweller.
Praise for Efficiency in Learning
"Sweller′s Cognitive Load Theory has emerged as one of the most important and best researched bases for improving design of instruction. . . provides the first book–length practical design guide to the application of CLT."
Rob Foshay, senior vice president, Instructional Design and Research, Whitney University
"Riveting reading for anyone who wants to understand human mental processes and how they influence our behavior."
Nancy Curtis, instructional designer, Element K
"Provides a distinguished example demonstrating how research findings can be made usable for practitioners."
Alexander Renkl, professor, Department of Psychology, Educational Psychology, University of Freiburg
"Research on cognitive load theory has yielded many guidelines for the design of effective instruction. This excellent book clearly describes and illustrates those guidelines for practitioners in the field of education and training."
Jeroen J.G. van Merrinboer, coauthor, Integrated E–Learning
"Nowhere else in book form will you find the guidelines that are here."
Timothy W. Spannaus, instructional technology, Wayne State University
PART ONE. AN INTRODUCTION TO EFFICIENCY IN LEARNING.
1. Cognitive Load and Efficiency in Learning.
2. The Psychology of Efficiency.
PART TWO. BASIC GUIDELINES FOR MANAGING (IRRELEVANT) COGNITIVE LOAD.
3. Use Visuals and Audio Narration to Exploit Working Memory Resources.
4. Focus Attention and Avoid Split Attention.
5. Weed Your Training to Manage Limited Working Memory Capacity.
6. Provide External Memory Support to Reduce Working Memory Load.
7. Use Segmenting, Sequencing, and Learner Pacing to Impose Content Gradually.
8. Transition from Worked Examples to Practice to Impose Mental Work Gradually.
PART THREE. INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDELINES FOR IMPOSING RELEVANT COGNITIVE LOAD.
9. Put Working Memory to Work with Germane Load.
PART FOUR. TAILORING INSTRUCTION TO LEARNER EXPERTISE.
10. Accommodate Differences in Learner Expertise.
11. Use Rapid Testing to Adapt e–Learning to Learner Expertise.
PART FIVE. COGNITIVE LOAD THEORY IN PERSPECTIVE.
12. Applying Cognitive Load Theory.
13. The Evolution of Cognitive Load Theory: A Personal Perspective by John Sweller.
Appendix: All About the Numbers.
About the Authors.
List of Figures and Tables.
How to Use the CD–ROM.
John Sweller is the founder of Cognitive Load Theory and it s most ardent researcher and advocate. The Web of Science records that his work has been cited on over 1,500 occasions –– with a rapidly increasing citation rate. He has been published in nearly 70 refereed journals and is the author of the seminal Instructional Design in Technical Areas. In recent years he has further developed general cognitive theory in the hope that this development can lead to further instructional applications. He has been a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences of Australia since 1993. He currently teaches at the School of Education at the University of New South Wales. He lives in Sydney, Australia.
Frank Nguyen, currently the e–Learning Technology Manager for the Intel eBusiness Training group, is responsible for providing tools and processes to enable online learning for 100+ training developers and 45,000 employees worldwide. Prior to Intel, Frank worked as a systems engineer for a national computer distributor and built automation systems for several Fortunate 500 companies. Frank is currently a doctoral student in Educational Technology at Arizona State University focusing on the convergence of eLearning and electronic performance support systems (EPSS).