Food and Industrial Bioproducts and Bioprocessing

  • ID: 2221962
  • Book
  • 392 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Petroleum–derived products have dominated world manufacturing industries for decades but diminishing petroleum resources, volatile political environments in some of the major petroleum producing countries and environmental concerns have caused a paradigm shift. Today, significant resources are dedicated to the development of bioproducts from renewable sources. Research and development efforts to harness the unique chemical and physical properties of plants and microorganisms to produce ecologically benign products that outperform their non–renewable counterparts have accelerated. Current and potential

markets for bioproducts are broad and include food ingredients, polymers, lubricants, solvents, adhesives, herbicides, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. Ever–increasing consumer demand for chemical free , healthy and natural foods have forced the food industry in particular to re–evaluate its use of conventional food ingredients and processing techniques and to adapt new and advanced production systems.

Food and Industrial Bioproducts and Bioprocessing provides a comprehensive review of the latest developments in food and industrial bioproducts and bioprocessing techniques. Although it is an important topic, biofuels are not covered in the book. Subjects covered over 14 chapters include starch–based bioproducts; protein processing; oil and oilseed processing; food–grade microemulsions; fermentation; fungal cell factories; microalgae and biopolymers. Additional chapters address recent developments in non–thermal processing and the role of enzymes as biocatalysts.

This volume is designed as a reference source for scientists, students and government and industry personnel who are interested in the recent developments and future opportunities in food and industrial bioproducts, and relevant bioprocessing techniques.

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Preface xi

Contributors xiii

Abbreviations xvii

1 Traditional and Emerging Feedstocks for Food and Industrial Bioproduct Manufacturing 1
Nurhan Turgut Dunford

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Grain crops 2

1.3 Oil and oilseeds 13

1.4 Lignocellulosic biomass 24

1.5 Conclusions 25

2 Recent Processing Methods for Preparing Starch–based Bioproducts 37
George F. Fanta, Frederick C. Felker and Randal L. Shogren

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 Annealing and heat moisture treatment 40

2.3 High–pressure treatment 41

2.4 Microwave processing 46

2.5 Processes using ultrasound 50

2.6 Processing using supercritical fluids 56

2.7 Extrusion processing 63

2.8 Processing by steam jet cooking 67

2.9 Conclusions 71

3 Protein Processing in Food and Bioproduct Manufacturing and Techniques for Analysis 85
Joyce Irene Boye and Chockry Barbana

3.1 Introduction 85

3.2 General properties of proteins 86

3.3 Protein separation processes in food and bioproduct manufacturing 87

3.4 Calculating protein yields and recovery 101

3.5 Processing effects on yield and protein quality 101

3.6 Conclusion 108

4 Advancements in Oil and Oilseed Processing 115
Nurhan Turgut Dunford

4.1 Introduction 115

4.2 Oilseed pretreatment 116

4.3 Oil extraction 119

4.4 Oil refining 127

4.5 Conclusions 137

5 Food–grade Microemulsions As Nano–scale Controlled Delivery Vehicles 145
Natasha Berry, Rickey Yada and Dérick Rousseau

5.1 Introduction 145

5.2 Winsor classification/phase behavior 146

5.3 Theories of microemulsion formation 147

5.4 What makes microemulsions thermodynamically stable? 148

5.5 Methods of microemulsion formation 148

5.6 Polydispersity 149

5.7 Composition 149

5.8 Factors affecting phase behavior 151

5.9 Parameters that modify microemulsion structure 152

5.10 Characterization techniques 154

5.11 Applications 158

5.12 Conclusions 160

6 Emulsions, Nanoemulsions and Solid Lipid Nanoparticles as Delivery Systems in Foods 167
Umut Yucel, Ryan J. Elias and John N. Coupland

6.1 Delivery systems in foods 167

6.2 Structure of emulsions 168

6.3 Localization of BLI in emulsions 169

6.4 Emulsions as delivery systems 172

6.5 Crystallization in emulsions 174

6.6 Localization of BLI in solid lipid nanoparticles 178

6.7 Conclusions 180

7 Fermentation 185
Mark R. Wilkins and Hasan Atiyeh

7.1 Introduction 185

7.2 Fermentative pathways 186

7.3 Microbial growth 188

7.4 Reactor design 189

7.5 Fermentation schemes 194

7.6 Fermentation Products 195

7.7 Separation 199

7.8 Future application areas and emerging developments 200

8 Fungal Cell Factories 205
Sue A. Karagiosis and Scott E. Baker

8.1 Fungi and fungal biotechnology 205

8.2 Historical perspective 206

8.3 Industry 208

8.4 Genomics and the future 213

8.5 Conclusions 215

9 Microalgae: A Renewable Source of Bioproducts 221
Susan I. Blackburn and John K. Volkman

9.1 Introduction 221

9.2 Microalgae and their global importance 221

9.3 Cultured microalgae 223

9.4 Algal culture collections 224

9.5 Microalgal production systems 225

9.6 Historical natural foods 228

9.7 Live feedstocks for aquaculture 228

9.8 Bioproducts 229

9.9 Pharmaceuticals 235

9.10 Microalgae in cosmetics and skin care 236

9.11 Microalgae bioproducts: Future potential 236

10 Bioprocessing Approaches to Synthesize Bio–based Surfactants and Detergents 243
Douglas G. Hayes

10.1 Bio–based surfactants: Overview 243

10.2 Feedstocks for bio–based surfactants 244

10.3 Industrial bio–based surfactants 246

10.4 Advantages of bioprocessing to prepare bio–based non–ionic surfactants 248

10.5 Preparation of bio–based surfactants via enzymes in non–aqueous media 249

10.6 Preparation of biosurfactants via fermentation 258

10.7 Conclusions 261

11 Biopolymers 267
Oguz Turünc and Michael A. R. Meier

11.1 Introduction 267

11.2 Carbohydrate–based polymers 267

11.3 Fat– and oil–based polymers 277

11.4 Conclusion 286

12 Lignocellulosic Biomass Processing 293
Fei Yu and Jonathan Y. Chen

12.1 Introduction 293

12.2 Availability of lignocellulosic biomass 293

12.3 Processing 297

13 Recent Developments in Non–thermal Processess 313
Fernando Sampedro and Howard Q. Zhang

13.1 Introduction 313

13.2 Recent advances in non–thermal technologies 314

13.3 Future trends 325

14 Enzymes as Biocatalysts for Lipid–based Bioproducts Processing 333
Ling–Zhi Cheong, Zheng Guo, Sergey N. Fedosov, Bena–Marie Lue, Ram C.R. Jala, Gündüz Güzel, and Xuebing Xu

14.1 Introduction 333

14.2 Enzyme characteristics 333

14.3 Enzyme kinetics in industrial applications 334

14.4 Enzymes in industrial applications 338

14.5 Conclusions and future trends 351

References 353

Index 359

A color plate section falls between pages 222 and 223

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Professor Nurhan Turgut Dunford is based at the Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, USA.
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