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Evidence-based Orthopedics. Edition No. 1. Evidence-Based Medicine

  • Book
  • 1178 Pages
  • December 2011
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
  • ID: 2222695
Surgical orthopedic procedures such as hip replacements, arthroscopy or knee replacements are surrounded by pre- and post-operative complications, and there are varying different methods for the procedures themselves. This book, for the first time, brings together the best evidence for treatments as well as any complications. Not only does it cover the evidence base for orthopedic surgery, but also orthopedic conditions requiring medical treatment, and pediatric orthopedics. Using the approved EBM methodology, and edited by teachers of evidence-based medicine, this is a genuine EBM textbook for all orthopedic specialists and trainees.

Table of Contents

Contributors, x

Foreword, xx

Preface, xxii

Abbreviations, xxiii

Section I Methodology of Evidence-Based Orthopedics

1 Principles of Evidence-Based Orthopedics, 3
Simrit Bains, Mohit Bhandari, and Paul Tornetta III

2 Understanding Hierarchies of Evidence and Grades of Recommendation, 7
Raman Mundi and Brad A. Petrisor

3 Critical Appraisal Tools for Surgeons 12
Farrah Hussain, Sheila Sprague, and Harry E. Rubash

4 Understanding Diagnosis, Therapy, and Prognosis, 17
Helena Viveiros, Sarah Resendes, Tania A. Ferguson, Mohit Bhandari, and Joel Matta

5 Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis, 25
Nasir Hussain, Farrah Hussain, Mohit Bhandari, and Saam Morshed

6 Economic Analysis, 30
Laura Quigley, Sheila Sprague, and Theodore Miclau III

Section II Orthopedic Medicine

7 Osteoporosis and Metabolic Disorders, 37
Celeste J. Hamilton, Sophie A. Jamal, and Earl R. Bogoch

8 Thromboprophylaxis in Orthopedic Practice, 56
Ernest Kwek and Richard E. Buckley

9 Blood Transfusion, 72
David W. Sanders and Jeffrey L. Carson

10 Wound Infections, 78
Wesley G. Lackey, Kyle J. Jeray, Atul F. Kamath, John G. Horneff III, and John L. Esterhai, Jr

11 Gouty Arthritis, 86
Jasvinder A. Singh

12 Perioperative Medical Management, 93
Daniel A. Mendelson, Susan M. Friedman, and Joseph A. Nicholas

13 Orthobiologics, 100
T. William Axelrad and Thomas A. Einhorn

Section III Joint Reconstruction

III.I Hip and Pelvic Reconstruction/Arthroplasty

14 The Role of Computer Navigation in Total Hip Arthroplasty, 119
Jonathan M. Loughead and Richard W. McCalden

15 Highly Crosslinked Polyethylene in Total Hip Arthroplasty, 131
Glen Richardson, Michael J. Dunbar, and Joseph P. Corkum

16 Hip Resurfacing vs. Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty, 137
Sanket R. Diwanji, Pascal-André Vendittoli, and Martin Lavigne

17 The Role of Ceramic in Total Hip Arthroplasty, 153
Peter M. Lewis and James P. Waddell

18 Minimally Invasive Techniques in Total Hip Arthroplasty, 164
Amre Hamdi and Paul E. Beaulé

III.II Hip Revision Surgery

19 Management of Femoral Periprosthetic Fractures After Hip Replacement, 171
Tamim Umran, Donald S. Garbuz, Bassam A. Masri, and Clive P. Duncan

20 Evaluation of the Painful Total Hip Replacement, 178
Matthew Oliver and James N. Powell

21 Revision of the Femoral Components: Role of Structural Bulk Allografts and Impaction Grafting, 186
Christopher R. Gooding, Bassam A. Masri, Donald S. Garbuz, and Clive P. Duncan

22 Revision of the Acetabular Components: Role of Structural Bulk Allografts and Porous Tantalum Implants, 205
John Antoniou, Alan J. Walsh, and Vassilios S. Nikolaou

III.III Knee Reconstruction/Arthroplasty

23 Antibiotic Cement in Total Knee Arthroplasty, 212
Philip A. O'Connor and Steven J. MacDonald

24 Cemented vs. Uncemented Fixation in Total Knee Arthroplasty, 220
Eric R. Bohm, Ili Slobodian, Thomas R. Turgeon, and Martin Petrak

25 High-Flexion Implants vs. Conventional Design Implants, 228
Nicholas Paterson, Robert J. Orec, and Douglas D.R. Naudie

26 The Neuropathic/Charcot Joint, 236
Rajrishi Sharma and Mitchell J. Winemaker

III.IV Knee Revision Surgery

27 Cemented vs. Uncemented Stems in Revision Knee Arthroplasty: Indications, Technique, and Outcomes, 242
Gerard M.J. March and Paul R. Kim

28 Management of Structural Defects in Revision Knee Arthroplasty: Femoral Side, 249
Sandor Gyomorey, Paul T.H. Lee, and David J. Backstein

29 Patellar Options in Revision Knee Arthroplasty, 257
Hatem Al-Harbi and Paul Zalzal

III.V Shoulder Reconstruction/Arthroplasty

30 Total Shoulder Replacement vs. Hemiarthroplasty in the Treatment of Shoulder Osteoarthritis, 263
Olivia Y.Y. Cheng and Michael D. McKee

31 Cemented vs. Uncemented Fixation in Shoulder Arthroplasty, 270
Shahryar Ahmadi and Christian Veillette

32 Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty, 278
Ryan T. Bicknell

33 Glenoid Fixation in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: What Type of Glenoid Component Should We Use?, 284
Eric C. Benson, Kenneth J. Faber, and George S. Athwal

III.VI Foot and Ankle Reconstruction/Arthroplasty

34 Fusion vs. Arthroplasty in the Treatment of Ankle Arthritis, 294
Timothy R. Daniels, Mark Glazebrook, Terence Chin, and Roger A. Haene

35 Fusion vs. Arthroplasty in the Treatment of 1st MTP Arthritis, 307
Jeffrey G.M. Tan, Gilbert Yee, and Johnny T.C. Lau

36 Charcot–Marie–Tooth Disease and the Treatment of the Cavo-Varus Foot, 317
David N. Townshend and Alastair S.E. Younger

Section IV Trauma

IV.I Upper Extremity

IV.I.I Shoulder Girdle

37 Acromioclavicular Joint, 325
Bill Ristevski and Michael D. McKee

38 Clavicle, 332
Bill Ristevski and Michael D. McKee

39 Scapula, 341
Peter A. Cole and Lisa K. Schroder

40 Post-Traumatic Avascular Necrosis of the Proximal Humerus, 351
Ilia Elkinson and Darren S. Drosdowech

IV.I.II Humerus

41 Proximal Humerus Fractures, 360
Job N. Doornberg and David Ring

42 Humeral Shaft Fractures, 366
Amy Hoang-Kim, Jörg Goldhahn, and David J. Hak

43 Distal Humerus Fractures, 374
Aaron Nauth and Emil H. Schemitsch

IV.I.III Elbow and Forearm

44 Fracture-Dislocations of the Elbow, 383
Reyhan A. Chaudhary, Maurice Tompack, and J. Whitcomb Pollock

45 Radial Head Fractures, 397
Andrea S. Bauer and David Ring

46 Monteggia Fracture-Dislocations, 403
Bryce T. Gillespie and Jesse B. Jupiter

47 Olecranon Fractures, 409
Bryce T. Gillespie and Jesse B. Jupiter

48 Forearm Fractures, Including Galeazzi Fractures, 416
S. John Ham, Matthijs R. Krijnen, and Rudolf W. Poolman

IV.I.IV Wrist and Hand

49 Distal Radius Fractures, 425
Boris A. Zelle and Michael Zlowodzki

50 Perilunate Dislocations, 437
Geert A. Buijze, Job N. Doornberg, and David Ring

51 Carpal Fractures, 443
Bertrand H. Perey, Anne-Marie Bedard, and Fay Leung

52 Metacarpal Fractures, 462
Brent Graham

IV.II Lower Extremity


53 Hip Dislocations, 468
Gregory J. Della Rocca, Brett D. Crist, and Yvonne M. Murtha

54 Femoral Head Fractures, 474
Chad P. Coles

55 Intracapsular Fractures, 480
Jennifer A. Klok, Marc Swiontkowski, and Mohit Bhandari

56 Intertrochanteric Fractures, 491
Ole Brink and Lars C. Borris

IV.II.II Femur

57 Subtrochanteric Fractures, 497
Steven Papp, Wade Gofton, and Allan S.L. Liew

58 Femoral Shaft Fractures, 504
Costas Papakostidis and Peter V. Giannoudis

59 Distal Femur Fractures, 522
Matthijs R. Krijnen, J. Carel Goslings, and Rudolf W. Poolman


60 Knee Dislocations, 527
James P. Stannard and Allan Hammond

IV.II.IV Tibia

61 Proximal Tibia, 534
Richard J. Jenkinson and Hans J. Kreder

62 Tibial Shaft, 541
Jennifer A. Klok

63 Distal Tibia/Plafond, 549
Hossein Pakzad and Peter J. O’Brien

IV.II.V Foot and Ankle

64 Malleolar Fractures, 561
David W. Sanders and Ajay Manjoo

65 Talus Fractures, 567
Gregory K. Berry

66 Calcaneus Fractures, 574
Stephen J. McChesney and Richard E. Buckley

67 Midfoot/Metatarsal Fractures, 583
Robin R. Elliot and Terence S. Saxby

IV.III Pelvis and Acetabulum

68 Pelvis, 593
G. Yves Laflamme, Stephane Leduc, and Dominique M. Rouleau

69 Acetabulum, 602
Kelly A. Lefaivre and Adam J. Starr

IV.IV General

70 Open Fractures, 617
Atul F. Kamath, John G. Horneff, John L. Esterhai, Jr., Wesley G. Lackey, Kyle J. Jeray, and J. Scott Broderick

71 Acute Compartment Syndrome, 627
Andrew H. Schmidt

72 Noninvasive Technologies for Fracture Repair, 636
Yoshinobu Watanabe, Makoto Kobayashi, and Takashi Matsushita

73 Calcium Phosphate Cements in Fracture Repair, 642
Ross K. Leighton, Kelly Trask, Thomas A. Russell, Mohit Bhandari, and Richard E. Buckley

74 Damage Control Orthopedics, 649
Philipp Kobbe and Hans-Christoph Pape

75 Mangled Extremity, 655
Ted V. Tufescu

Section V Adult Spine

V.I Cervical Spine

76 Mechanical Neck Pain, 663
Gabrielle van der Velde

77 Whiplash, 669
Gabrielle van der Velde

V.II Mechanical Low Back Pain without Neuropathy

78 Mechanical Low Back Pain: Operative Treatment - Fusion, 675
Rahul Basho, Alex Gitelman, and Jeffrey C. Wang

79 Mechanical Low Back Pain: Nonoperative Management, 678
Andrea D. Furlan, Victoria Pennick, Jill A. Hayden, and Carlo Ammendolia

V.III Low Back Pain with Neuropathy

80 Neurogenic Claudication - Operative Management (Decompression and Fusion), 686
Hormuzdiyar H. Dasenbrock, Reza Yassari, and Timothy F. Witham

81 Neurogenic Claudication: Nonoperative Management, 694
Carlo Ammendolia

82 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis - Nonoperative Management, 702
Calvin T. Hu and James O. Sanders

83 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis - Operative Management, 710
Calvin T. Hu and James O. Sanders

84 Metastatic/Myeloma Disease - Operative Management, 721
Harsha Malempati, Erion Qamirani, and Albert J.M. Yee

85 Metastatic/Myeloma Disease - Nonoperative Management, 728
Harsha Malempati, Erion Qamirani, and Albert J.M. Yee

Section VI Sports Medicine

VI.I Shoulder

86 Treatment of the First Shoulder Dislocation, 737
Charles L. Cox, and John E. Kuhn

87 Chronic Shoulder Instability, 744
Joost I.P. Willems and W. Jaap Willems

88 Rotator Cuff Injury, 752
John E. Kuhn

89 Shoulder Impingement Syndrome, 763
Ron L. Diercks and Oscar Dorrestijn

90 Pathology of the Long Head of the Biceps, 772
Paul W.L. ten Berg, Luke S. Oh, and David Ring

VI.II Elbow

91 Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury, 781
Denise Eygendaal and Laurens Kaas

92 Tennis Elbow, 787
Peter A.A. Struijs, Rachelle Buchbinder, and Sally E. Green


93 Initial Management of the Sports Injured Knee, 796
Jaskarndip Chahal, Christopher Peskun, and Daniel B. Whelan

94 Meniscal Tears (Meniscectomy, Meniscopexy, Meniscal Transplants/Scaffolds), 803
Nicola Maffulli, Umile Giuseppe Longo, Stefano Campi, and Vincenzo Denaro

95 Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury, 812
Verena M. Schreiber, Kenneth D. Illingworth, Hector A. Mejia, and Freddie H. Fu

96 Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury, 822
Rune Bruhn Jakobsen and Bent Wulff Jakobsen

97 Operative vs. Nonoperative Treatment of Combined Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Medial Collateral Ligament Injuries, 832
Rocco Papalia, Sebastiano Vasta, Vincenzo Denaro, and Nicola Maffulli

98 Posterolateral Corner Injury, 841
Pankaj Sharma and Daniel B. Whelan

99 Cartilage Injury, 847
Joris E.J. Bekkers, Anika I. Tsuchida, and Daniël B.F. Saris

100 Runner's Knee, 853
Ella W. Yeung and Simon S. Yeung

VI.IV Foot and Ankle

101 Ankle Ligament Injury, 862
Michel P.J. van den Bekerom, Rover Krips, and Gino M.M.J. Kerkhoffs

102 Achilles Tendinopathy, 872
Nicola Maffulli, Umile Giuseppe Longo, Stefano Campi, and Vincenzo Denaro

VI.V Hip

103 Labral Tears, 879
Sanaz Hariri, Henk Eijer, and Marc R. Safran

104 Hip Impingement, 892
Marc J. Philippon and Karen K. Briggs

105 Snapping Hip, 898
Bas van Ooij and Matthias U. Schafroth

VI.VI Other Injuries

106 Ergogenic Aids: Creatine Supplementation as a Popular Ergogenic Aid in Young Adults, 905
Michael J. O'Brien

Section VII Wrist and Hand Surgery

VII.I Wrist Surgery

107 Acute Management of Distal Radius Fractures, 913
Ruby Grewal

108 Prognosis: Pain and Disability After Distal Radius Fracture, 923
Joy C. MacDermid and Ruby Grewal

109 Reconstruction of Malunited Distal Radius Fracture, 930
James T. Monica and David Ring

110 Scaphoid Fractures, 938
Ruby Grewal

111 Nonunions of the Scaphoid, 946
Nina Suh and Ruby Grewal

112 Trapeziometacarpal Arthritis of the Thumb, 954
Anne Wajon, Emma Carr, Louise Ada, and Ian A. Edmunds

113 Salvage Procedures for the Treatment of Wrists with Scapholunate Advanced Collapse, 962
Jonathan Mulford, Paul K. Della Torre, and Stuart J.D. Myers

114 Wrist Arthroscopy, 969
Aaron M. Freilich, Bryan S. Dudoussat, Fiesky A. Nunez Jr, Thomas Sarlikiotis, and Ethan R. Wiesler

115 Rheumatoid Wrist Reconstruction (Arthrodesis and Arthroplasty), 979
Warren C. Hammert and Kevin C. Chung

VII.II Hand Surgery

116 Management of Finger Fractures, 987
Kristin B. de Haseth and David Ring

117 Prevention of Adhesion in Flexor Tendon Surgery, 993
Filippo Spiezia, Vincenzo Denaro, and Nicola Maffulli

118 Therapy: Flexor Tendon Rehabilitation, 998
B. Jane Freure and Mike Szekeres

119 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - Conservative Management, 1012
Jean-Sébastien Roy and Jessica Collins

120 Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - Surgical Management, 1021
Jessica Collins, Jean-Sébastien Roy, Leslie L. McKnight, and Achilleas Thoma

121 Dupuytren's Disease, 1029
Larisa Kristine Vartija, Leslie L. McKnight, and Achilleas Thoma

122 Extensor Tendon Surgery, 1039
Carolyn M. Levis and Monica Alderson

123 Rheumatoid Hand Reconstruction, 1046
Oluseyi Aliu and Kevin C. Chung

124 Flexor Tendon Surgery, 1057
Shima C. Sokol and Robert M. Szabo

125 Replantation, 1072
Stephanie Ma, Leslie L. McKnight, and Achilleas Thoma

Section VIII Orthopedic Oncology

126 Radiation in Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Pre- or Postoperative, 1083
Kurt R. Weiss, Rej Bhumbra, Peter C. Ferguson, Brian O'Sullivan, and Jay S. Wunder

127 Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Does the Evidence Support the Administration of Chemotherapy?, 1088
Jennifer L. Halpern, Jill Gilbert, Ginger E. Holt, Vicki L. Keedy, and Herbert S. Schwartz

128 Surgery in Bone Sarcoma: Allograft vs. Megaprosthesis, 1097
Kelly C. Homlar, Jennifer L. Halpern, Herbert S. Schwartz, and Ginger E. Holt

129 Biopsy of Soft Tissue Masses, 1108
Bruce T. Rougraff, Albert J. Aboulafia, J. Sybil Biermann, and John Healey

130 Surgical Margins in Soft Tissue Sarcoma: What Is a Negative Margin?, 1112
Bruce T. Rougraff

Index, 1121


Mohit Bhandari McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario.