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# Handbook on Material and Energy Balance Calculations in Metallurgical Processes. 2nd, Revised Edition

• ID: 2239359
• Book
• May 2010
• 584 Pages
• John Wiley and Sons Ltd
A revised edition of the original text, this handbook reviews the basic principles of physical chemistry, linear algebra, and statistics which are necessary to determine material and energy balances. Chapter topics include: Dimensions, Units, and Conversion Factors; Stoichiometry; Sampling and Measurements; Material Balances; Thermochemistry; and Energy Balances. In addition, three appendices covering basic properties of matrices; graphic and tabular enthalpy data for 65 elements (their oxides, halides, carbides, and nitrides); and a bibliography of related reference material.

This is a valuable textbook not just for students, but also for practicing engineers looking for a refresher text in this important area.

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CHAPTER 1: DIMENSIONS, UNITS, AND CONVERSION FACTORS.

1.0 Introduction.

1.1 The SI System of Units.

1.1.1 Units and Dimensions.

1.1.2 Prefixes.

1.1.3 Acceptable Non–SI Units.

1.1.4 Style.

1.2 Conversion Factors.

1.2.1 Conversion Factor Tables.

1.2.2 The Dimensional Equation.

1.2.3 Conversion Equations.

1.3 The Mole Unit.

1.4 Density and Concentration.

1.4.1 Density.

1.4.2 Concentration.

1.5 Electrical Units.

1.6 Summary.

Exercises.

CHAPTER 2: STOICHIOMETRY.

2.0 Introduction.

2.1 Atomic and Molecular Mass (Weight).

2.2 The Chemical Equation.

2.3 The Ideal Gas Law.

2.4 Excess and Limiting Reactants.

2.5 Oxidation–Reductions.

2.6 Summary.

Exercises.

CHAPTER 3: SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENTS.

3.0 Introduction.

3.1 The Importance of Errors and Error Description.

3.2 Propagation of Experimental Errors.

3.2.1 Propagation of Maximum Errors.

3.2.2 Propagation of Probable Errors.

3.2.3 Significant Figures.

3.3 Sampling Methods and Procedures.

3.3.1 Sampling Granular Solids.

3.3.2 Sampling Liquids.

3.3.3 Sampling Gases.

3.4 Weighing.

3.4.1 Belt Weighers.

3.4.2 Hopper Weighers.

3.4.3 Platform Weighers.

3.4.4 Crane Weighers.

3.4.5 Roller Conveyor Weighers.

3.5 Density Measurements.

3.5.1 Liquid Density.

3.5.2 Bulk Density.

3.5.3 Pulp (Slurry) Density.

3.6 Measurement of Temperature.

3.6.1 Thermocouples.

3.6.2 Pressure Thermometers.

3.7 Fluid Flow Measurement.

3.7.1 Flow Totalizers.

3.7.2 Vortex Meters.

3.7.3 Magnetic Flowmeters.

3.7.4 Variable Area Meters.

3.8 Pressure Measurement.

3.8.1 Positive Pressure.

3.8.2 Vacuum.

3.9 Chemical Analyses.

3.9.1 Emission Spectroscopy.

3.9.2 X–Ray Techniques.

3.9.3 Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy.

3.9.4 Chromatography.

3.9.5 Infrared Analyzers.

3.9.6 Gaseous Oxygen Analyzers.

3.10 Summary.

CHAPTER 4: MATERIAL BALANCES.

4.0 Introduction.

4.1 Conservation of Matter (Mass).

4.2 Solution of Sets of Equations.

4.2.1 Partitioning of Equations.

4.2.2 Determinants.

4.2.3 Gaussian Elimination.

4.2.4 Matrix Inversion.

4.2.5 Matrix Conditioning.

4.2.6 Tearing Equations.

4.3 Material Balances.

4.3.1 Degrees of Freedom.

4.3.2 Problems Having Direct Solutions.

4.3.3 Tie Components.

4.3.4 Recycle Calculations.

4.4 Representation of Material Balances.

4.5 Summary.

Exercises.

CHAPTER 5: THERMOCHEMISTRY.

5.0 Introduction.

5.1 The System.

5.1.1 Types of Thermodynamic Systems.

5.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics.

5.2.1 General Case.

5.2.2 Special Cases.

5.3 Enthalpy.

5.3.1 Enthalpy Increments.

5.3.2 Latent Heat.

5.3.3 Heat of Formation and Reaction.

5.4 Sources of Enthalpy Data.

5.4.1 Data Compilations.

5.4.2 Data from Thermodynamic Relationships.

5.5 Summary.

Exercises.

CHAPTER 6: ENERGY BALANCES.

6.0 Introduction.

6.1 The Heat Balance.

6.1.1 Sankey Diagrams.

6.3 Electrical Energy.

6.3.1 Electric Power Fundamentals.

6.3.2 Electric Arc Furnaces.

6.3.3 Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) Furnaces.

6.3.4 Electroslag Remelting (ESR) Furnaces.

6.3.5 Induction Melting and Heating Furnaces.

6.3.6 Electrochemical Processes.

6.4 Staged Heat Balances.

6.4.1 Critical Temperature and Energy Quality Requirements.

6.4.2 Energy Quantity Requirements in a Continuous Process.

6.5 Simultaneous Material and Energy Balances: Thermochemical Models.

6.6 Process Analysis.

6.6.1 Theoretical Energy Requirements for Ironmaking.

6.6.2 Energy Efficiency in the Age of Scarcity.

Exercises.

APPENDICES.

A. Basic Properties of Matrices (Daniel T. Hanson).

B. Enthalpy Data.

C. Bibliography of Material and Energy Balances on Metallurgical, Cement, and Lime Processes.

INDEX.

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H. Alan Fine
Gordon Geiger
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