Flash Smelting. Analysis, Control and Optimization. 2nd Edition

  • ID: 2239372
  • Book
  • 338 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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This book, an updated version of the first edition, chronicles recent developments made in flash furnaces and the process of flash smelting. Divided into two sections, a descriptive section and a mathematical section, this edition includes the contributions of two new authors, updated information that reflects current industrial practices, and an updated mathematical approach. The first edition ofFlash Smelting has been used by industrial engineers to control and optimize their flash furnaces.
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1. Flash Smelting.

1.1 Reactions.

1.2 Advantages.

1.3 Competitors.

1.4 Recent Developments.

1.5 Summary.

Suggested Reading.



2. Outokumpu Flash Smelting.

2.1 The Outokumpu Furnace.

2.2 Peripheral Equipment.

2.3 Furnace Operations.

2.4 Control.

2.5 Impurity Behavior in the Flash Furnace.

2.6 Major 1990′s Trends in Outokumpu Flash Smelting.

2.7 Summary.

Suggested Reading.



3. Inco Flash Smelting.

3.1 Furnace Details.

3.2 Auxiliary Equipment.

3.3 Operation.

3.4 Basic Inco Flash Furnace Control Strategy.

3.5 Cu–in–Slag and Molten Converted Slag Recycle.

3.6 Inco vs Outokumpu Flash Smelting.

3.7 Summary.

Suggested Reading.



4. Mathematical Description of Flash Smelting.

4.1 Fundamental Equations – Mass and Enthalpy Balances.

4.2 Feed and Product Specifications.

4.3 Adaptation of Mass and Enthalpy Balances to Flash Smelting – Illustrative Problem.

4.4 Useful Forms of Equations (4.2) to (4.7).

4.5 Solving the Section 4.3 Illustrative Problem.

4.6 Discussion.

4.7 Summary.

Suggested Reading.



5. Mixed Mineralogy Concentrated Feed Cu–Fe–S–O–SiO2 Minerals.

5.1 Illustrative Problem.

5.2 Mass and Enthalpy Balances with Mixed Mineral Concentrate.

5.3 Calculation Matrix and Results.

5.4 Discussion.

5.5 Summary.


6. Outokumpu Flash Smelting – N2 in Flash Furnace Blast.

6.1 Illustrative Problem.

6.2 Nitrogen Equations.

6.3 Enthalpy Balance Modifications.

6.4 Calculation and Results.

6.5 Discussion.

6.6 Summary.


7. Autothermal Flash Furnace production of 65% Cu Matte.

7.1 Calculation Strategy.

7.2 Matte Grade Specification.

7.3 Calculation and Results.

7.4 Discusion.

7.5 Summary.


8. Hot Blast Autothermal Smelting to 65% Cu Matte.

8.1 Illustrative Problem.

8.2 Calculation Matrix.

8.3 Solving the Matrix.

8.4 Comparison 298 K and 600 K Requirements.

8.5 Energy for Heating Blast.

8.6 Overall Effects of Heating the Blast.

8.7 Summary.


9. Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuel in the Flash Furnace – Production of 65% Cu Matte.

9.1 Illustrative Hydrocarbon Combustion Problem.

9.2 Building the Matrix – New Carbon and Hydrogen Balances.

9.3 Mass Hydrocarbon Fuel Specification.

9.4 Oxygen Balance Modifications.

9.5 Enthalpy Balance Modifications.

9.6 Calculation Matrix and Results.

9.7 Discussion.

9.8 Summary.


10. Alternative Strategies for Producing 65% Cu Matte.


10.2 Discussion.

10.3 Offgas Treatment Costs.

10.4 Maximizing Flash Furnace Smelting Rate.

10.5 Summary.


11. Industrial Oxygen, Oil and Blast Preheat Requirements for Producing 65% Cu Matte.

11.1 Replacing %O2 –in–Blast with mass Industrial Oxygen.

11.2 Replacing Blast Temperature with Blast Preheat Energy.

11.3 Results.

11.4 Minimum Energy Consumption.

11.5 Calculating Total Energy Input.

11.6 Minimum Energy Requirement, 65% Cu Matte.

11.7 Summary.



12. Effect of Matte Grade on Flash Smelting 60%, 65% and 70% Cu Mattes.

12.1 Calculation and Results.

12.2 Example Industrial Oxygen and Oil Savings.

12.3 Physical Explanation of Matte Grade Effects.

12.4 Minimum Flash Furnace Energy Consumption.

12.5 Summary.



13. Effect of Concentrate Composition on 65% Cu Matte Smelting: FeS2–CuFeS2 Concentrates.

13.1 FeS2–CuFeS2 System.

13.2 Calculation Strategy.

13.3 Industrial Oxygen and Oil Requirements per Tonne of Cu in Concentrate.

13.4 Slag Production and Cu–in–Slag Loss per Tonne of Cu in Concentrate.

13.5 SO2 Production per Tonne of Cu in Concentrate.

13.6 Offgass Production per Tonne of Cu in Concentrate.

13.7 Summary.


14. Effect of Concentrate on 65% Cu Matte Smelting: Cu2S–CuFeS2 Concentrates.

14.1 Cu2S–CuFeS2 System.

14.2 Calculation Strategy.

14.3 Results.

14.4 Requirements per Tonne of Cu in Concentrate.

14.5 Slag, SO2 and Offgas Production.

14.6 Summary.


15. Temperature, Heat Losses, Electric Heating and Hydrocarbon Fuels.

15.1 Product Temperature Effects.

15.2 Conductive, Convective plus Radiative Heat Loss Effects.

15.3 Electricity in the Flash Furnace.

15.4 Hydrocarbon Fuels – Carbon and Natural Gas.

15.5 Summary.



16. H2O in the Flash Furnace.

16.1 Effect of Liquid H2O on Flash Smelting – Water Leaks into the Furnace.

16.2 H2O in Concentrate and Flux.

16.3 Humidity in Blast.

16.4 Summary.


17. Minor Feed Materials and Model Sensitivity.

17.1 Molten Converter Slag Recycle.

17.2 Minor Oxides in Flash Furnace Feed.

17.3 Carbonates and Hydroxides.

17.4 Minor Sulfides in Flash Furnace Feed.

17.5 Ignored Aspects of Flash Smelting Chemistry – Cu and S in Slag.

17.6 Ignored Aspects of Flash Smelting Chemistry – Fe3O4 in Slag.

17.7 Ignored Aspects of Flash Smelting Chemistry – Fe3O4 in Matte.

17.8 Summary.



18. Production and Recycle of Dust.

18.1 Characteristics of Flash Furnace Dust.

18.2 Inclusion of Dust in Flash Furnace Calculations.

18.3 Calculations and Discussion.

18.4 Non–Recycle of Dust.

18.5 Calculations with Dust as a Function of Offgas Mass.

18.6 Minimizing Dust Evolution.

18.7 Summary.



19. Direct–to–Copper Flash Smelting.

19.1 Direct–to–Copper Smelting in 2000.

19.2 Direct–to–Copper Flash Furnace Matrix.

19.3 Matrix Results: %O2–in–Blast, Industrial Oxygen and Oil Requirements.

19.4 Distribution of Cu Between Metal and Slag.

19.5 Impurities in the Copper Product.

19.6 Summary.



20. Flash Converting.

20.1 Chemistry.

20.2 Flash Converting Matrix (Table 20.2).

20.3 Results: %O2–in–Blast/Oil Requirements.

20.4 Industrial Oxygen/Oil Requirements.

20.5 Choice of Intermediate Matte Grade.

20.6 Impurities in Flash Converting Copper.

20.7 Alternatives to Flash Converting.

20.8 Energy Cost of Solidifying Flash Smelting Matte.

20.9 Summary.



21. Comparison of Direct–to–Copper Flash Smelting and Flash Smelting/Flash Converting.

21.1 Flash Smelting/Flash Converting Calculations.

21.2 Comparison of Direct–to–Copper Smelting and Flash Smelting/Flash Converting.

21.3 Non–Flash Furnace Energy Requirements.

21.4 Total Energy Requirement.

21.5 Summary.

Suggested R eading.


22. Flash Furnace Control.

22.1 Adjusting Flash Furnace Temperature.

22.2 Adjusting Matte Grade.

22.3 Keeping Matte Grade and Temperature Constant While Concentrate Composition Changes.

22.4 Keeping Matte Grade and Temperature Constant While Concentrate Feed Rate Changes.

22.5 Feedforward Control.

22.6 Feedback Control.

22.7 Mechanical Problems.

22.8 Summary.

Suggested Reading.


23. Flash Furnace Optimization.

23.1 Excel Optimization.

23.2 Example Optimization Problem.

23.3 Optimization Calculation.

23.4 Minimum Oil Constraint.

23.5 Lower Oil Price.

23.6 Production Rate Constraint.

23.7 Allowing Solver to Choose Optimum Matte Grade.

23.8 Maximizing Smelting Rate.

23.9 Maximizing Profit.

23.10 Summary.




I. Stoichiometric Data.

298 K Enthalpies.

IIb. Enthalpies of Smelting Products.

IIc. Enthalpy Equations for Flash Furnace Smelting Products, 1400–1700K.

IId. Enthalpies of N2 and O2, 298–1000 K.

III. Matrix Calculations in Excel Using Table 4.2 as Example.

IV. Natural Gas and Coal Calculations.

V. Results of Chapter 10 Calculations.

VI. Flash Smelting of Nickel Sulfide Concentrates.

VII. Compositions of Concentrate, Flux, Matte, Slag and Dust in Industrial Flash Furnaces.

Answers to Numerical Problems.


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W. G. Davenport
D. M. Jones
M. J. King
E. H. Partelpoeg
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