This book assesses the challenge of satisfying food demand during the twenty–first century as consumers and producers in every part of the world rich and poor alike feel the effects of expanded global commodity trade, food aid, and national legislation in response to globalization. The difficulties of developing agriculture in the developing world are discussed in the context of food subsidies in Europe and the US.
Part I: Introduction.
1.1 Our Focus.
1.2 Chapter Outline.
Part II: The Demand Side: How Population Growth and Higher Incomes Affect Food Consumption.
2.1 Classic Malthusianism, its Modern Variants, and its Critiques.
2.2 Demographic Transition.
2.3 Trends in Human Numbers, Past and Present.
2.4 Food Consumption and Income.
2.5 Demand Trends and Projections.
2.6 Summary and Conclusions.
Appendix: The Fundamental Economics of Demand.
Part III: The Supply Side: Agricultural Production and its Determinants.
3.1 The Nature of Agriculture.
3.2 Increases in Agricultural Supply.
3.3 Has Intensification Run its Course?.
3.4 Trends in Per–Capita Consumption.
Appendix: The Fundamental Economics of Supply.
Part IV: Aligning the Consumption and Production of Food over Time.
4.1 The Desirability of Competitive Equilibrium.
4.2 The Market Impacts of Commodity Programs.
4.3 Historical Trends in the Scarcity of Agricultural Products.
4.4 Outlook for the Twenty–First Century.
Appendix: The Coordination of Decentralized Decision–Making.
Part V: Agriculture and the Environment.
5.1 Environmental Trade–Offs.
5.2 Market Failure.
5.3 Environmental Deterioration in the Absence of Agricultural Intensification.
5.4 Agricultural Development and the Environment.
Part VI: Globalization and Agriculture.
6.1 The Theory of Comparative Advantage.
6.2 The Net Costs of Trade Distortions.
6.3 The Debate over Globalization.
6.4 Agricultural Trade: Recent Trends and the Current Debate.
6.5 Why Not More Trade?.
Appendix: A Two–Country Illustration of Comparative Advantage.
Part VII: Agriculture and Economic Development.
7.1 Growth and Economic Structure.
7.2 Agriculture s Role in Economic Development.
7.3 Trying to Develop at Agriculture s Expense.
7.4 Agricultural Development for the Sake of Economic Growth and Diversification.
7.5 Summary and Conclusions.
Part VIII: Striving for Food Security.
8.1 What is Food Security?.
8.2 Who and Where Are the Food–Insecure?.
8.3 Achieving Food Security.
8.4 The Food Security Synthesis and Economic Development.
8.5 The Standard Model, Communitarian Values, and Economic Equity.
Part IX: A Synopsis of Regional Trends in the Global Food Economy.
9.1 Economic Growth and Income Distribution.
9.2 Population Dynamics.
9.3 Agriculture s Response to Demand Growth.
Part X : Affluent Nations.
10.1 Standards of Living.
10.2 Population Dynamics.
10.3 The Food Economy.
10.4 Dietary Change and Consumption Trends.
Part XI: Asia.
11.1 Trends in GDP per Capita.
11.2 Population Dynamics.
11.3 Agricultural Development.
11.4 Dietary Change, Consumption Trends, and Food Security.
Part XII: Latin America and the Caribbean.
12.1 Trends in GDP per Capita.
12.2 Population Dynamics.
12.3 Agricultural Development.
12.4 Dietary Change, Consumption Trends, and Food Security.
Part XIII: Middle East and North Africa.
13.1 Trends in GDP per Capita.
13.2 Population Dynamics.
13.3 Agricultural Development.
13.4 Dietary Change, Consumption Trends, and Food Security.
Part XIV: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union.
14.1 Patterns of Economic Growth since the Fall of Communism.
14.2 Demographic Trends.
14.3 The Agricultural Sector.
14.4 Dietary Change, Consumption Trends, and Food Security.
Part XV: Sub–Saharan Africa.
15.1 Trends in GDP per Capita.
15.2 Demographic Trends.
15.3 Agricultural Development.
15.4 Consumption Trends and Food Security.
Part XVI: The Food Economy in the Twenty–First Century.
16.1 Victims of Our Own Success?.
16.2 The New Food Economy.
16.3 The Changing Role of Government.
Abbreviations and Acronyms.