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Requirements Engineering. From System Goals to UML Models to Software Specifications. Edition No. 1

  • ID: 2242188
  • Book
  • January 2009
  • 712 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd

The book presents both the current state of the art in requirements engineering and a systematic method for engineering high-quality requirements, broken down into four parts.  The first part introduces fundamental concepts and principles including the aim and scope of requirements engineering, the products and processes involved, requirements qualities to aim at and flaws to avoid, and the critical role of requirements engineering in system and software engineering.

The second part of the book is devoted to system modeling in the specific context of engineering requirements. It presents a multi-view modeling framework that integrates complementary techniques for modeling the system-as-is and the system-to-be. The third part of the book reviews goal-based reasoning techniques to support the various steps of the KAOS method. The fourth part of the book goes beyond requirements engineering to discuss the mapping from goal-oriented requirements to software specifications and to software architecture.

Online software will accompany the book and will add value to both classroom and self-study by enabling students to build models and specifications involved in the book’s exercises and case studies, helping them to discover the latest RE technology solutions. Instructor resources such as slides, figures and handouts are available from an accompanying website.

Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown

Foreword xvii

Preface xxi

Part I Fundamentals of Requirements Engineering 1

1 Setting the Scene 3

1.1 What is requirements engineering? 3

1.1.1 The problem world and the machine solution 4

1.1.2 Introducing our running case studies 6

1.1.3 The WHY, WHAT and WHO dimensions of requirements engineering 12

1.1.4 Types of statements involved in requirements engineering 17

1.1.5 Categories of requirements 23

1.1.6 The requirements lifecycle: Processes, actors and products 30

1.1.7 Target qualities and defects to avoid 35

1.1.8 Types of software projects 40

1.1.9 Requirements in the software lifecycle 42

1.1.10 The relationship of requirements engineering to other disciplines 45

1.2 Why engineer requirements? 47

1.2.1 Facts, data and citations about the requirements problem 47

1.2.2 The role and stakes of requirements engineering 51

1.3 Obstacles to good requirements engineering practice 52

1.4 Agile development processes and requirements engineering 53

Summary 55

Notes and Further Reading 56

Exercises 58

2 Domain Understanding and Requirements Elicitation 61

2.1 Identifying stakeholders and interacting with them 62

2.2 Artefact-driven elicitation techniques 64

2.2.1 Background study 64

2.2.2 Data collection 65

2.2.3 Questionnaires 65

2.2.4 Repertory grids and card sorts for concept-driven acquisition 66

2.2.5 Storyboards and scenarios for problem world exploration 67

2.2.6 Mock-ups and prototypes for early feedback 70

2.2.7 Knowledge reuse 72

2.3 Stakeholder-driven elicitation techniques 76

2.3.1 Interviews 77

2.3.2 Observation and ethnographic studies 79

2.3.3 Group sessions 80

2.4 Conclusion 81

Summary 82

Notes and Further Reading 84

Exercises 85

3 Requirements Evaluation 87

3.1 Inconsistency management 88

3.1.1 Types of inconsistency 88

3.1.2 Handling inconsistencies 89

3.1.3 Managing conflicts: A systematic process 90

3.2 Risk analysis 93

3.2.1 Types of risk 94

3.2.2 Risk management 95

3.2.3 Risk documentation 101

3.2.4 Integrating risk management in the requirements lifecycle 102

3.3 Evaluating alternative options for decision making 105

3.4 Requirements prioritization 108

3.5 Conclusion 112

Summary 113

Notes and Further Reading 114

Exercises 116

4 Requirements Specification and Documentation 119

4.1 Free documentation in unrestricted natural language 120

4.2 Disciplined documentation in structured natural language 121

4.2.1 Local rules on writing statements 121

4.2.2 Global rules on organizing the requirements document 124

4.3 Use of diagrammatic notations 127

4.3.1 System scope: context, problem and frame diagrams 127

4.3.2 Conceptual structures: entity–relationship diagrams 130

4.3.3 Activities and data: SADT diagrams 133

4.3.4 Information flows: dataflow diagrams 134

4.3.5 System operations: use case diagrams 136

4.3.6 Interaction scenarios: event trace diagrams 136

4.3.7 System behaviours: state machine diagrams 138

4.3.8 Stimuli and responses: R-net diagrams 142

4.3.9 Integrating multiple system views and multiview specification in UML 142

4.3.10 Diagrammatic notations: Strengths and limitations 144

4.4 Formal specification 145

4.4.1 Logic as a basis for formalizing statements 146

4.4.2 History-based specification 151

4.4.3 State-based specification 155

4.4.4 Event-based specification 163

4.4.5 Algebraic specification 167

4.4.6 Other specification paradigms 172

4.4.7 Formal specification: strengths and limitations 173

4.5 Conclusion 174

Summary 176

Notes and Further Reading 179

Exercises 183

5 Requirements Quality Assurance 187

5.1 Requirements inspections and reviews 188

5.1.1 The requirements inspection process 188

5.1.2 Inspection guidelines 190

5.1.3 Requirements inspection checklists 191

5.1.4 Conclusion 195

5.2 Queries on a requirements database 196

5.3 Requirements validation by specification animation 198

5.3.1 Extracting an executable model from the specification 199

5.3.2 Simulating the model 199

5.3.3 Visualizing the simulation 200

5.3.4 Conclusion 200

5.4 Requirements verification through formal checks 202

5.4.1 Language checks 202

5.4.2 Dedicated consistency and completeness checks 203

5.4.3 Model checking 205

5.4.4 Theorem proving 208

5.5 Conclusion 211

Summary 213

Notes and Further Reading 214

Exercises 217

6 Requirements Evolution 219

6.1 The time–space dimensions of evolution: Revisions and variants 220

6.2 Change anticipation 223

6.3 Traceability management for evolution support 225

6.3.1 Traceability links 226

6.3.2 The traceability management process, its benefits and cost 233

6.3.3 Traceability management techniques 237

6.3.4 Determining an adequate cost–benefit trade-off for traceability management 244

6.4 Change control 246

6.4.1 Change initiation 247

6.4.2 Change evaluation and prioritization 248

6.4.3 Change consolidation 249

6.5 Runtime monitoring of requirements and assumptions for dynamic change 249

6.6 Conclusion 251

Summary 252

Notes and Further Reading 254

Exercises 256

7 Goal Orientation in Requirements Engineering 259

7.1 What are goals? 260

7.2 The granularity of goals and their relationship to requirements and assumptions 261

7.3 Goal types and categories 265

7.3.1 Types of goal: behavioural goals vs soft goals 265

7.3.2 Goal categories: Functional vs non-functional goals 269

7.4 The central role of goals in the requirements engineering process 272

7.5 Where are goals coming from? 275

7.6 The relationship of goals to other requirements-related products and processes 276

7.6.1 Goals and scenarios 276

7.6.2 Intentional and operational specifications 277

7.6.3 Goals and use cases 277

7.6.4 Goals and model-checked properties 277

7.6.5 Goal orientation and agent orientation 278

7.6.6 Goal orientation and object orientation 278

7.6.7 Goal orientation and top-down analysis 279

Summary 279

Notes and Further Reading 280

Exercises 283

Part II Building System Models for Requirements Engineering 287

8 Modelling System Objectives with Goal Diagrams 293

8.1 Goal features as model annotations 294

8.2 Goal refinement 297

8.3 Representing conflicts among goals 301

8.4 Connecting the goal model with other system views 302

8.5 Modelling alternative options 303

8.5.1 Alternative goal refinements 304

8.5.2 Alternative responsibility assignments 305

8.6 Goal diagrams as AND/OR graphs 307

8.7 Documenting goal refinements and assignments with annotations 308

8.8 Building goal models: Heuristic rules and reusable patterns 309

8.8.1 Eliciting preliminary goals 309

8.8.2 Identifying goals along refinement branches 311

8.8.3 Delimiting the scope of the goal model 316

8.8.4 Avoiding common pitfalls 317

8.8.5 Reusing refinement patterns 319

8.8.6 Reusing refinement trees associated with goal categories 326

Summary 328

Notes and Further Reading 329

Exercises 331

9 Anticipating What Could Go Wrong: Risk Analysis on Goal Models 335

9.1 Goal obstruction by obstacles 336

9.1.1 What are obstacles? 336

9.1.2 Completeness of a set of obstacles 337

9.1.3 Obstacle categories 338

9.2 Modelling obstacles 339

9.2.1 Obstacle diagrams 339

9.2.2 Conditions on obstacle refinement 341

9.2.3 Bottom-up propagation of obstructions in goal AND-refinements 342

9.2.4 Annotating obstacle diagrams 343

9.3 Obstacle analysis for a more robust goal model 344

9.3.1 Identifying obstacles 344

9.3.2 Evaluating obstacles 349

9.3.3 Resolving obstacles in a modified goal model 349

Summary 353

Notes and Further Reading 355

Exercises 356

10 Modelling Conceptual Objects with Class Diagrams 359

10.1 Representing domain concepts by conceptual objects 360

10.1.1 What are conceptual objects? 360

10.1.2 Object instantiation: classes and current instances 361

10.1.3 Types of conceptual object 362

10.1.4 Object models as UML class diagrams 363

10.1.5 Object features as model annotations 364

10.2 Entities 366

10.3 Associations 366

10.4 Attributes 371

10.5 Built-in associations for structuring object models 373

10.5.1 Object specialization 373

10.5.2 Object aggregation 376

10.6 More on class diagrams 377

10.6.1 Derived attributes and associations 377

10.6.2 OR-associations 378

10.6.3 Ordered associations 379

10.6.4 Associations of associations 379

10.7 Heuristic rules for building object models 380

10.7.1 Deriving pertinent and complete class diagrams from goal diagrams 380

10.7.2 Object or attribute? 384

10.7.3 Entity, association, agent or event? 384

10.7.4 Attribute of a linked object or of the linking association? 385

10.7.5 Aggregation or association? 386

10.7.6 Specializing and generalizing concepts 386

10.7.7 Avoiding common pitfalls 387

Summary 389

Notes and Further Reading 391

Exercises 392

11 Modelling System Agents and Responsibilities 395

11.1 What are agents? 396

11.2 Characterizing system agents 397

11.2.1 Basic features 397

11.2.2 Agent capabilities 397

11.2.3 Agent responsibilities and goal realizability 399

11.2.4 Agents as operation performers 401

11.2.5 Agent wishes and beliefs 402

11.2.6 Agent dependencies 403

11.3 Representing agent models 405

11.3.1 Agent diagrams and instance declarations 405

11.3.2 Context diagrams 406

11.3.3 Dependency diagrams 407

11.4 Refinement of abstract agents 408

11.5 Building agent models 411

11.5.1 Heuristics for building agent diagrams from goal models 411

11.5.2 Generating context diagrams from goal models 413

Summary 415

Notes and Further Reading 417

Exercises 418

12 Modelling System Operations 421

12.1 What are operations? 422

12.2 Characterizing system operations 425

12.2.1 Basic features 425

12.2.2 Operation signature 425

12.2.3 Domain pre- and post-conditions 426

12.2.4 Operation performer 427

12.3 Goal operationalization 427

12.3.1 Required pre-, post- and trigger conditions for goal satisfaction 427

12.3.2 Agent commitments 430

12.3.3 Goal operationalization and satisfaction arguments 432

12.4 Goals, agents, objects and operations: The semantic picture 434

12.5 Representing operation models 435

12.5.1 Operationalization diagrams 435

12.5.2 UML use case diagrams 435

12.6 Building operation models 437

12.6.1 Heuristics for building operationalization diagrams 437

12.6.2 Generating use case diagrams from operationalization diagrams 442

Summary 442

Notes and Further Reading 444

Exercises 445

13 Modelling System Behaviours 449

13.1 Modelling instance behaviours 450

13.1.1 Scenarios as UML sequence diagrams 450

13.1.2 Scenario refinement: Episodes and agent decomposition 452

13.2 Modelling class behaviours 454

13.2.1 State machines as UML state diagrams 455

13.2.2 State machine refinement: Sequential and concurrent sub-states 459

13.3 Building behaviour models 463

13.3.1 Elaborating relevant scenarios for good coverage 465

13.3.2 Decorating scenarios with state conditions 467

13.3.3 From scenarios to state machines 469

13.3.4 From scenarios to goals 473

13.3.5 From operationalized goals to state machines 475

Summary 477

Notes and Further Reading 480

Exercises 481

14 Integrating Multiple System Views 485

14.1 A meta-model for view integration 485

14.1.1 Overall structure of the meta-model 487

14.1.2 The goal meta-model 488

14.1.3 The object meta-model 489

14.1.4 The agent meta-model 490

14.1.5 The operation meta-model 491

14.1.6 The behaviour meta-model 492

14.2 Inter-view consistency rules 493

14.3 Grouping related view fragments into packages 496

Summary 498

Notes and Further Reading 498

Exercises 499

15 A Goal-Oriented Model-Building Method in Action 501

15.1 Modelling the system-as-is 503

15.1.1 Step 1: Build a preliminary goal model illustrated by scenarios 503

15.1.2 Step 2: Derive a preliminary object model 506

15.2 Modelling the system-to-be 507

15.2.1 Step 3: Update the goal model with new goals illustrated by scenarios 507

15.2.2 Step 4: Derive the updated object model 510

15.2.3 Step 5: Analyse obstacles, threats and conflicts 512

15.2.4 Step 6: Analyse responsibilities and build the agent model 515

15.2.5 Step 7: Make choices among alternative options 517

15.2.6 Step 8: Operationalize goals in the operation model 518

15.2.7 Step 9: Build and analyse the behaviour model 521

15.3 Handling model variants for product lines 524

Summary 528

Notes and Further Reading 529

Exercises 529

Part III Reasoning About System Models 535

16 Semi-Formal Reasoning for Model Analysis and Exploitation 537

16.1 Query-based analysis of the model database 538

16.1.1 Checking the structural consistency and completeness of the model 538

16.1.2 Generation of other views for dedicated analyses 540

16.1.3 Traceability management 540

16.1.4 Analogical model reuse 541

16.2 Semi-formal analysis of goal-oriented models 544

16.2.1 Conflict analysis 544

16.2.2 Heuristic identification of obstacles 549

16.2.3 Threat analysis: From goal models to anti-goal models 551

16.3 Reasoning about alternative options 557

16.3.1 Qualitative reasoning about alternatives 557

16.3.2 Quantitative reasoning about alternatives 560

16.4 Model-driven generation of the requirements document 562

16.5 Beyond RE: From goal-oriented requirements to software architecture 566

16.5.1 Deriving a software data architecture from the object model 567

16.5.2 Deriving an abstract dataflow architecture from the agent and operation models 568

16.5.3 Selecting an architectural style from architectural requirements 570

16.5.4 Architectural refinement from quality requirements 571

Summary 574

Notes and Further Reading 576

Exercises 578

17 Formal Specification of System Models 583

17.1 A real-time temporal logic for specifying model annotations 584

17.1.1 State assertions 584

17.1.2 Temporal assertions 585

17.1.3 Real-time temporal constructs 586

17.2 Specifying goals in the goal model 588

17.3 Specifying descriptive properties in the object model 592

17.4 Specifying operationalizations in the operation model 594

17.5 Back to the system’s semantic picture 596

Summary 598

Notes and Further Reading 599

Exercises 599

18 Formal Reasoning for Specification Construction and Analysis 603

18.1 Checking goal refinements 604

18.1.1 Using a theorem prover 604

18.1.2 Formal refinement patterns 604

18.1.3 Using bounded SAT solvers 608

18.2 Deriving goal operationalizations 609

18.2.1 Using bounded SAT solvers 610

18.2.2 Formal operationalization patterns 610

18.3 Generating obstacles for risk analysis 613

18.3.1 Regressing obstructions through domain properties 614

18.3.2 Using formal obstruction patterns 617

18.4 Generating anti-goals for security analysis 618

18.4.1 Specifying security goals 618

18.4.2 Identifying security goals and initial anti-goals 620

18.4.3 Refining anti-goals 621

18.5 Formal conflict analysis 622

18.5.1 Deriving boundary conditions for conflict 623

18.5.2 Formal resolution of divergences 625

18.6 Synthesizing behaviour models for animation and model checking 627

18.6.1 Goal-driven model synthesis 628

18.6.2 Scenario-driven model synthesis 628

Summary 635

Notes and Further Reading 636

Exercises 637

Bibliography 641

Index 669

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Axel van Lamsweerde University Catholique de Louvain.
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