Foundations of Heat Transfer. 6th Edition International Student Version

  • ID: 2243085
  • Book
  • Region: Global
  • 984 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Completely updated, the sixth edition provides engineers with an in–depth look at the key concepts in the field. It incorporates new discussions on emerging areas of heat transfer, discussing technologies that are related to nanotechnology, biomedical engineering and alternative energy. The example problems are also updated to better show how to apply the material. And as engineers follow the rigorous and systematic problem–solving methodology, they ll gain an appreciation for the richness and beauty of the discipline.
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Symbols xxi

CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1

1.1 What and How? 2

1.2 Physical Origins and Rate Equations 3

1.2.1 Conduction 3

1.2.2 Convection 6

1.2.3 Radiation 8

1.2.4 The Thermal Resistance Concept 12

1.3 Relationship to Thermodynamics 12

1.3.1 Relationship to the First Law of Thermodynamics (Conservation of Energy) 13

1.3.2 Relationship to the Second Law of Thermodynamics and the Efficiency of Heat Engines 31

1.4 Units and Dimensions 36

1.5 Analysis of Heat Transfer Problems: Methodology 38

1.6 Relevance of Heat Transfer 41

1.7 Summary 45

References 48

Problems 49

CHAPTER 2 Introduction to Conduction 67

2.1 The Conduction Rate Equation 68

2.2 The Thermal Properties of Matter 70

2.2.1 Thermal Conductivity 70

2.2.2 Other Relevant Properties 78

2.3 The Heat Diffusion Equation 82

2.4 Boundary and Initial Conditions 90

2.5 Summary 94

References 95

Problems 95

CHAPTER 3 One–Dimensional, Steady–State Conduction 111

3.1 The Plane Wall 112

3.1.1 Temperature Distribution 112

3.1.2 Thermal Resistance 114

3.1.3 The Composite Wall 115

3.1.4 Contact Resistance 117

3.1.5 Porous Media 119

3.2 An Alternative Conduction Analysis 132

3.3 Radial Systems 136

3.3.1 The Cylinder 136

3.3.2 The Sphere 141

3.4 Summary of One–Dimensional Conduction Results 142

3.5 Conduction with Thermal Energy Generation 142

3.5.1 The Plane Wall 143

3.5.2 Radial Systems 149

3.5.3 Tabulated Solutions 150

3.5.4 Application of Resistance Concepts 150

3.6 Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces 154

3.6.1 A General Conduction Analysis 156

3.6.2 Fins of Uniform Cross–Sectional Area 158

3.6.3 Fin Performance 164

3.6.4 Fins of Nonuniform Cross–Sectional Area 167

3.6.5 Overall Surface Efficiency 170

3.7 The Bioheat Equation 178

3.8 Thermoelectric Power Generation 182

3.9 Micro– and Nanoscale Conduction 189

3.9.1 Conduction Through Thin Gas Layers 189

3.9.2 Conduction Through Thin Solid Films 190

3.10 Summary 190

References 193

Problems 193

CHAPTER 4 Two–Dimensional, Steady–State Conduction 229

4.1 Alternative Approaches 230

4.2 The Method of Separation of Variables 231

4.3 The Conduction Shape Factor and the Dimensionless Conduction Heat Rate 235

4.4 Finite–Difference Equations 241

4.4.1 The Nodal Network 241

4.4.2 Finite–Difference Form of the Heat Equation 242

4.4.3 The Energy Balance Method 243

4.5 Solving the Finite–Difference Equations 250

4.5.1 Formulation as a Matrix Equation 250

4.5.2 Verifying the Accuracy of the Solution 251

4.6 Summary 256

References 257

Problems 257

4S.1 The Graphical Method W–1

4S.1.1 Methodology of Constructing a Flux Plot W–1

4S.1.2 Determination of the Heat Transfer Rate W–2

4S.1.3 The Conduction Shape Factor W–3

4S.2 The Gauss Seidel Method: Example of Usage W–5

References W–9

Problems W–10

CHAPTER 5 Transient Conduction 279

5.1 The Lumped Capacitance Method 280

5.2 Validity of the Lumped Capacitance Method 283

5.3 General Lumped Capacitance Analysis 287

5.3.1 Radiation Only 288

5.3.2 Negligible Radiation 288

5.3.3 Convection Only with Variable Convection Coefficient 289

5.3.4 Additional Considerations 289

5.4 Spatial Effects 298

5.5 The Plane Wall with Convection 299

5.5.1 Exact Solution 300

5.5.2 Approximate Solution 300

5.5.3 Total Energy Transfer 302

5.5.4 Additional Considerations 302

5.6 Radial Systems with Convection 303

5.6.1 Exact Solutions 303

5.6.2 Approximate Solutions 304

5.6.3 Total Energy Transfer 304

5.6.4 Additional Considerations 305

5.7 The Semi–Infinite Solid 310

5.8 Objects with Constant Surface Temperatures or Surface Heat Fluxes 317

5.8.1 Constant Temperature Boundary Conditions 317

5.8.2 Constant Heat Flux Boundary Conditions 319

5.8.3 Approximate Solutions 320

5.9 Periodic Heating 327

5.10 Finite–Difference Methods 330

5.10.1 Discretization of the Heat Equation: The Explicit Method 330

5.10.2 Discretization of the Heat Equation: The Implicit Method 337

5.11 Summary 345

References 346

Problems 346

5S.1 Graphical Representation of One–Dimensional, Transient Conduction in the

Plane Wall, Long Cylinder, and Sphere W–12

5S.2 Analytical Solution of Multidimensional Effects W–16

References W–22

Problems W–22

CHAPTER 6 Introduction to Convection 377

6.1 The Convection Boundary Layers 378

6.1.1 The Velocity Boundary Layer 378

6.1.2 The Thermal Boundary Layer 379

6.1.3 Significance of the Boundary Layers 380

6.2 Local and Average Convection Coefficients 381

6.2.1 Heat Transfer 381

6.2.2 The Problem of Convection 382

6.3 Laminar and Turbulent Flow 383

6.3.1 Laminar and Turbulent Velocity Boundary Layers 383

6.3.2 Laminar and Turbulent Thermal Boundary Layers 385

6.4 The Boundary Layer Equations 388

6.4.1 Boundary Layer Equations for Laminar Flow 389

6.4.2 Compressible Flow 391

6.5 Boundary Layer Similarity: The Normalized Boundary Layer Equations 392

6.5.1 Boundary Layer Similarity Parameters 392

6.5.2 Functional Form of the Solutions 393

6.6 Physical Interpretation of the Dimensionless Parameters 400

6.7 Momentum and Heat Transfer (Reynolds) Analogy 402

6.8 Summary 404

References 405

Problems 405

6S.1 Derivation of the Convection Transfer Equations W–25

6S.1.1 Conservation of Mass W–25

6S.1.2 Newton s Second Law of Motion W–26

6S.1.3 Conservation of Energy W–29

References W–35

Problems W–35

CHAPTER 7 External Flow 415

7.1 The Empirical Method 416

7.2 The Flat Plate in Parallel Flow 418

7.2.1 Laminar Flow over an Isothermal Plate: A Similarity Solution 418

7.2.2 Turbulent Flow over an Isothermal Plate 424

7.2.3 Mixed Boundary Layer Conditions 425

7.2.4 Unheated Starting Length 426

7.2.5 Flat Plates with Constant Heat Flux Conditions 427

7.2.6 Limitations on Use of Convection Coefficients 427

7.3 Methodology for a Convection Calculation 428

7.4 The Cylinder in Cross Flow 433

7.4.1 Flow Considerations 433

7.4.2 Convection Heat Transfer 436

7.5 The Sphere 443

7.6 Flow Across Banks of Tubes 447

7.7 Impinging Jets 455

7.7.1 Hydrodynamic and Geometric Considerations 456

7.7.2 Convection Heat Transfer 458

7.8 Packed Beds 461

7.9 Summary 462

References 464

Problems 465

CHAPTER 8 Internal Flow 489

8.1 Hydrodynamic Considerations 490

8.1.1 Flow Conditions 490

8.1.2 The Mean Velocity 491

8.1.3 Velocity Profile in the Fully Developed Region 492

8.1.4 Pressure Gradient and Friction Factor in Fully Developed Flow 494

8.2 Thermal Considerations 495

8.2.1 The Mean Temperature 496

8.2.2 Newton s Law of Cooling 497

8.2.3 Fully Developed Conditions 497

8.3 The Energy Balance 501

8.3.1 General Considerations 501

8.3.2 Constant Surface Heat Flux 502

8.3.3 Constant Surface Temperature 505

8.4 Laminar Flow in Circular Tubes: Thermal Analysis and Convection Correlations 509

8.4.1 The Fully Developed Region 509

8.4.2 The Entry Region 514

8.4.3 Temperature–Dependent Properties 516

8.5 Convection Correlations: Turbulent Flow in Circular Tubes 516

8.6 Convection Correlations: Noncircular Tubes and the Concentric Tube Annulus 524

8.7 Heat Transfer Enhancement 527

8.8 Flow in Small Channels 530

8.8.1 Microscale Convection in Gases (0.1 m Dh 100 m) 530

8.8.2 Microscale Convection in Liquids 531

8.8.3 Nanoscale Convection (Dh 100 nm) 532

8.9 Summary 535

References 537

Problems 538

CHAPTER 9 Free Convection 561

9.1 Physical Considerations 562

9.2 The Governing Equations for Laminar Boundary Layers 565

9.3 Similarity Considerations 566

9.4 Laminar Free Convection on a Vertical Surface 567

9.5 The Effects of Turbulence 570

9.6 Empirical Correlations: External Free Convection Flows 572

9.6.1 The Vertical Plate 573

9.6.2 Inclined and Horizontal Plates 576

9.6.3 The Long Horizontal Cylinder 581

9.6.4 Spheres 585

9.7 Free Convection Within Parallel Plate Channels 586

9.7.1 Vertical Channels 587

9.7.2 Inclined Channels 589

9.8 Empirical Correlations: Enclosures 589

9.8.1 Rectangular Cavities 589

9.8.2 Concentric Cylinders 592

9.8.3 Concentric Spheres 593

9.9 Combined Free and Forced Convection 595

9.10 Summary 596

References 597

Problems 598

CHAPTER 10 Boiling and Condensation 619

10.1 Dimensionless Parameters in Boiling and Condensation 620

10.2 Boiling Modes 621

10.3 Pool Boiling 622

10.3.1 The Boiling Curve 622

10.3.2 Modes of Pool Boiling 623

10.4 Pool Boiling Correlations 626

10.4.1 Nucleate Pool Boiling 626

10.4.2 Critical Heat Flux for Nucleate Pool Boiling 628

10.4.3 Minimum Heat Flux 629

10.4.4 Film Pool Boiling 629

10.4.5 Parametric Effects on Pool Boiling 630

10.5 Forced Convection Boiling 635

10.5.1 External Forced Convection Boiling 636

10.5.2 Two–Phase Flow 636

10.5.3 Two–Phase Flow in Microchannels 639

10.6 Condensation: Physical Mechanisms 639

10.7 Laminar Film Condensation on a Vertical Plate 641

10.8 Turbulent Film Condensation 645

10.9 Film Condensation on Radial Systems 650

10.10 Condensation in Horizontal Tubes 655

10.11 Dropwise Condensation 656

10.12 Summary 657

References 657

Problems 659

CHAPTER 11 Heat Exchangers 671

11.1 Heat Exchanger Types 672

11.2 The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient 674

11.3 Heat Exchanger Analysis: Use of the Log Mean Temperature Difference 677

11.3.1 The Parallel–Flow Heat Exchanger 678

11.3.2 The Counterflow Heat Exchanger 680

11.3.3 Special Operating Conditions 681

11.4 Heat Exchanger Analysis: The Effectiveness NTU Method 688

11.4.1 Definitions 688

11.4.2 Effectiveness NTU Relations 689

11.5 Heat Exchanger Design and Performance Calculations 696

11.6 Additional Considerations 705

11.7 Summary 713

References 714

Problems 714

11S.1 Log Mean Temperature Difference Method for Multipass and Cross–Flow Heat Exchangers W–38

11S.2 Compact Heat Exchangers W–42

References W–47

Problems W–48

CHAPTER 12 Radiation: Processes and Properties 733

12.1 Fundamental Concepts 734

12.2 Radiation Heat Fluxes 737

12.3 Radiation Intensity 739

12.3.1 Mathematical Definitions 739

12.3.2 Radiation Intensity and Its Relation to Emission 740

12.3.3 Relation to Irradiation 745

12.3.4 Relation to Radiosity for an Opaque Surface 747

12.3.5 Relation to the Net Radiative Flux for an Opaque Surface 748

12.4 Blackbody Radiation 748

12.4.1 The Planck Distribution 749

12.4.2 Wien s Displacement Law 750

12.4.3 The Stefan Boltzmann Law 750

12.4.4 Band Emission 751

12.5 Emission from Real Surfaces 758

12.6 Absorption, Reflection, and Transmission by Real Surfaces 767

12.6.1 Absorptivity 768

12.6.2 Reflectivity 769

12.6.3 Transmissivity 771

12.6.4 Special Considerations 771

12.7 Kirchhoff s Law 776

12.8 The Gray Surface 778

12.9 Environmental Radiation 784

12.9.1 Solar Radiation 785

12.9.2 The Atmospheric Radiation Balance 787

12.9.3 Terrestrial Solar Irradiation 789

12.10 Summary 792

References 796

Problems 796

CHAPTER 13 Radiation Exchange Between Surfaces 827

13.1 The View Factor 828

13.1.1 The View Factor Integral 828

13.1.2 View Factor Relations 829

13.2 Blackbody Radiation Exchange 838

13.3 Radiation Exchange Between Opaque, Diffuse, Gray Surfaces in an Enclosure 842

13.3.1 Net Radiation Exchange at a Surface 843

13.3.2 Radiation Exchange Between Surfaces 844

13.3.3 The Two–Surface Enclosure 850

13.3.4 Radiation Shields 852

13.3.5 The Reradiating Surface 854

13.4 Multimode Heat Transfer 859

13.5 Implications of the Simplifying Assumptions 862

13.6 Radiation Exchange with Participating Media 862

13.6.1 Volumetric Absorption 862

13.6.2 Gaseous Emission and Absorption 863

13.7 Summary 867

References 868

Problems 869

APPENDIX A Thermophysical Properties of Matter 897

APPENDIX B Mathematical Relations and Functions 927

APPENDIX C Thermal Conditions Associated with Uniform Energy Generation in One–Dimensional, Steady–State Systems 933

APPENDIX D The Gauss Seidel Method 939

APPENDIX E The Convection Transfer Equations 941

E.1 Conservation of Mass 942

E.2 Newton s Second Law of Motion 942

E.3 Conservation of Energy 943

APPENDIX F Boundary Layer Equations for Turbulent Flow 945

APPENDIX G An Integral Laminar Boundary Layer Solution for Parallel Flow over a Flat Plate 949

Index

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Frank P. Incropera
David P. DeWitt
Theodore L. Bergman
Adrienne S. Lavine
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