CMOS manufacturing environments are rife with symptoms that can indicate serious test, design, or reliability problems. CMOS Electronics: How It Works, How It Fails provides both practitioners and students in the industry with the electronic knowledge that relates not just to the design of a product, but other important aspects of manufacturing such as testing, reliability, failure analysis, yield–quality issues, and common problems that may occur during production.
The majority of those who work in the CMOS integrated circuit (IC) industry have educational backgrounds other than electrical engineering. The first part of the book assumes little knowledge of circuitry and transistors, covering the relevant basic electronics of CMOS ICs at a tutorial level or as a quick review for electrical engineers. The second half offers thorough descriptions of failure mechanisms that both audiences can appreciate.
A valuable addition to the CMOS literature, CMOS Electronics addresses such common questions as:
- Is the symptom an outcome of random defects, or is it symptomatic with a common failure signature?
- Why doesn’t my test program detect certain defects?
- Are my test escapes a reliability problem?
- Is the defect a bridging problem, an open circuit problem, or a subtle speed–related problem?
Providing rapid guidance to the nature of these problems and offering unique descriptions of many circuit failure mechanisms found previously only in research papers, CMOS Electronics is an essential text for practitioners in the CMOS industry, or students headed there.
PART I: CMOS FUNDAMENTALS.
1 Electrical Circuit Analysis.
1.2 Voltage and Current Laws.
2 Semiconductor Physics.
2.1 Semiconductor Fundamentals.
2.2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors.
2.3 Carrier Transport in Semiconductors.
2.4 The pn Junction.
2.5 Biasing the pn Junction: I V Characteristics.
2.6 Parasitics in the Diode.
3 MOSFET Transistors.
3.1 Principles of Operation: Long–Channel Transistors.
3.2 Threshold Voltage in MOS Transistors.
3.3 Parasitic Capacitors in MOS Transistors.
3.4 Device Scaling: Short–Channel MOS Transistors.
4 CMOS Basic Gates.
4.2 The CMOS Inverter.
4.3 NAND Gates.
4.4 NOR Gates.
4.5 CMOS Transmission Gates.
5 CMOS Basic Circuits.
5.1 Combinational logic.
5.2 Sequential Logic.
5.3 Input Output (I/O) Circuitry.
PART II FAILURE MODES, DEFECTS, AND TESTING OF CMOS Ics.
6 Failure Mechanisms in CMOS IC Materials.
6.2 Materials Science of IC Metals.
6.3 Metal Failure Modes.
6.4 Oxide Failure Modes.
7 Bridging Defects.
7.2 Bridges in ICs: Critical Resistance and Modeling.
7.3 Gate Oxide Shorts (GOS).
7.4 Bridges in Combinational Circuits.
7.5 Bridges in Sequential Circuits.
7.6 Bridging Faults and Technology Scaling.
8 Open Defects.
8.2 Modeling Floating Nodes in ICs.
8.3 Open Defect Classes.
9 Parametric Failures.
9.2 Intrinsic Parametric Failures.
9.3 Intrinsic Parametric Failure Impact on IC Behavior.
9.4 Extrinsic Parametric Failure.
10 Defect–Based Testing.
10.2 Digital IC Testing: The Basics.
10.3 Design for Test.
10.4 Defect–Based Testing (DBT).
10.5 Testing Nanometer ICs.
Appendix A: Solutions to Self–Exercises.
A.1 Chapter 1.
A.2 Chapter 3.
A.3 Chapter 4.
A.4 Chapter 5.
A.5 Chapter 6.
A.6 Chapter 7.
A.8 Chapter 8.
A.8 Chapter 10.
About the Authors.