The Handbook of Weather, Climate, and Water: Atmospheric Chemistry, Hydrology, and Societal Impacts is the first of two stand–alone volumes that will be landmarks in the meteorological literature for many years to come. Each volume encompasses both fundamental topics and critical issues that have recently surfaced in studies of the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Renowned experts have contributed to every part of this handbook. Each overview chapter is followed by topic–specific chapters written by specialists who present comprehensive discussions at a greater level of detail and complexity.
The Handbook of Weather, Climate, and Water: Atmospheric Chemistry, Hydrology, and Societal Impacts covers topics that are essential for grasping the scientific bases of major issues such as global climate warming, the ozone hole, acid rain, floods, droughts, and other natural disasters. Cross–references between chapters allow readers to easily pursue a specific interest beyond a particular subtopic or individual chapter.
Other topics include:
- Aerosols and smog
- Cloud chemistry
- Greenhouse gases
- Remote sensing techniques in hydrology
- Hydrologic forecasting and simulation
- Tropical deforestation effects on the climate system
- Societal impacts of the El Niño phenomenon
The Handbook of Weather, Climate, and Water: Atmospheric Chemistry, Hydrology, and Societal Impacts will be an essential addition to the libraries of professionals and academics in the environmental sciences, and a valuable source book for university and technical libraries throughout the world.
SECTION I: ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY.
1. OVERVIEW: ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY (Jack Fishman).
1 Stratospheric Chemistry: Understanding the Ozone Layer.
2 Tropospheric Chemistry: A Complex Interaction of Biogeochemical Cycles.
3 Global Carbon Cycle.
4 Global Carbon Budget.
5 Atmospheric Chemistry within Global Carbon Cycle.
6 Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxides, and Oxidizing Capacity of Troposphere.
7 Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Warming.
8 Stratosphere–Troposphere Chemical and Climate Interaction.
9 Stratosphere–Trophosphere Exchange.
2. OXIDIZING POWER OF ATMOSPHERE (Daniel J. Jacob).
2 Hydroxyl Radical OH.
3 Other Atmospheric Oxidants.
3. TROPOSPHERIC OZONE (Jack Fishman).
2 Chemistry of Tropospheric Ozone Formation.
3 Global Distribution of Tropospheric Ozone.
4 Tropospheric Ozone Trends in Nonurban Troposphere.
5 Global Tropospheric Ozone Budget.
6 Current Understanding of Tropospheric Ozone Budget.
4. NITROGEN OXIDES AND OTHER REACTIVE NITROGEN SPECIES (J. H. Crawford, J. D. Bradshaw, D. D. Davis, and S. C. Liu).
2 Chemical Transformations and Speciation of Reactive Nitrogen.
3 Sources of Reactive Nitrogen.
4 Tropospheric Distribution of Reactive Nitrogen.
5. CARBON MONOXIDE IN THE ATMOSPHERE (Paul Novelli).
1 Measurement Techniques.
2 Global CO Distributions.
3 Global CO Budget.
4 Tropospheric Trends.
6. ATMOSPHERIC METHANE (M. A. K. Khalil and M. J. Shearer).
2 Atmospheric Observations.
3 Mass Balance.
4 Sources and Sinks.
5 Past and Present Trends.
6 Discussion and Commentary.
7. BIOGENIC NONMETHANE HYDROCARBONS (Marcy E. Litvak).
2 Biogenic NMVOCs.
3 Regional and Global Distribution of Biogenic NMVOC Emissions.
4 Summary and Conclusions.
8. ATMOSPHERIC SULFUR (D. D. Davis, G. Chen, and M. Chin).
2 Chemical Forms, Sources, and Concentration Levels.
4 Global Distributions of SO2 and Sulfate.
5 Stratospheric Sulfur.
9. CONVECTIVE TRANSPORT (Kenneth E. Pickering).
10. BOUNDARY LAYER PROCESSES AND FLUX MEASUREMENTS (Donald H. Lenschow).
2 Boundary Layer Evolution.
3 Structure of the Boundary Layer.
4 Scales and Processes.
5 Observational Techniques.
11. SOURCES AND COMPOSITION OF AEROSOL PARTICLES (Richard Arimoto).
2 Mechanically Generated Aerosols.
3 Sources Producing Primary and Secondary Particles.
4 Concluding Remarks.
12. AEROSOLS: FORMATION AND MICROPHYSICS IN THE TROPOSPHERE (John H. Seinfeld).
2 Particle Size Distribution.
3 Residence Times of Particles in the Troposphere.
4 Tropospheric Aerosols.
5 Aerosol Microphysics.
13. PHOTOCHEMICAL SMOG: OZONE AND ITS PRECURSORS (Sanford Sillman).
2 General Features of Photochemical Smog.
3 Relation between Ozone, NOx, and Hydrocarbons.
4 Chemistry of Ozone Formation.
14. BIOMASS BURNING (Anne M. Thompson).
2 Chemical Reactions: Ozone Formation and Effects of Fires on Atmospheric Oxidizing Capacity.
3 Results of Tropical Field Campaigns.
4 Remote Sensing.
15. ACID RAIN AND DEPOSITION (William B. Grant).
7 Intensive Study Programs.
8 Global Trends in Emissions and Deposition.
9 Soil Changes.
10 Effects of Forests, Aquatic Ecosystems, and Materials.
16. FUNDAMENTALS OF VISIBILITY (William C. Malm).
2 Theory of Radiation Transfer and Visibility.
3 Visibility Impairment.
4 Examples of Visibility Impairment.
5 Value of Good Visual Air Quality.
17 CLOUD CHEMISTRY (Stephen E. Schwartz).
2 Cloud Physical Properties Pertinent to Cloud Chemistry.
3 Sources of Cloudwater Composition.
4 Uptake of Gases into Cloudwater.
5 Reactive Uptake of Gases by Cloudwater.
6 Coupled Mass Transport of Chemical Reaction.
18. DRY DEPOSITION (M. L. Wesely).
2 Formulation of Deposition Velocity.
3 Deposition Velocity Estimates.
4 Models of Deposition Velocity.
19. FATE OF ATMOSPHERIC TRACE GASES: WET DEPOSITION (Chris Walcek).
2 Nucleation Scavenging.
20. LARGE–SCALE CIRCULATION OF THE STRATOSPHERE (William L. Grose).
1 Governing Equations.
2 Vertical Temperature Structure.
3 Zonal–Mean Climatology of Temperatures and Zonal Winds.
4 Zonal–Mean Meridonial Circulation.
5 Wave Motions.
21. STRATOSPHERIC OZONE OBSERVATIONS (Jack A. Kaye and Jack Fishman).
2 Properties of Ozone Affecting Its Measurement.
3 Total Column Measurements.
4 Ozone Vertical Profile Measurements.
5 Future Measurements.
22. AEROSOL PROCESSES IN THE STRATOSPHERE (Mario J. Molina).
2 Chemical Reactions on Stratospheric Aerosols.
3 Heterogeneous Reaction Rates and Mechanisms.
4 Thermodynamic Properties of Stratospheric Aerosols.
5 Mechanism of Formation of Stratospheric Aerosols.
SECTION 2: HYDROLOGY.
23. HYDROLOGY OVERVIEW (Soroosh Sorooshian and Martha P. L. Whitaker).
2 Hydrologic Cycle.
5 Modeling and Remote Sensing of the Global Hydrologic Cycle: Modeling Globally, Benefiting Locally.
6 Stochastic Models of Hydrologic Processes.
24. RAINFALL (James A. Smith).
1 Rain Gages.
25. SNOW HYDROLOGY AND WATER RESOURCES (WESTERN UNITED STATES) (Roger C. Bales and Don Cline).
2 Current Hydroclimatic Conditions in the Western United States.
3 Measurement and Estimation of Snow Properties.
4 Estimation of Snowmelt Runoff.
26. EVALUATING THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF EVAPORATION (William P. Kustas, M. Susan Moran, and John M. Norman).
2 Short History.
3 Conventional Approaches for Measuring Evaporation.
4 Approaches for Estimating Evaporation Using Remote Sensing.
6 Concluding Remarks.
27. INFILTRATION AND SOIL MOISTURE PROCESSES (Paul R. Houser).
1 Controls on Infiltration and Soil Moisture.
2 Principles of Soil Water Movement.
3 Infiltration Estimation.
4 Infiltration Measurement.
5 Soil Moisture Measurement.
6 Spatial and Temporal Variability.
28. GROUNDWATER FLOW PROCESSES (William W–G. Yeh).
2 Darcy′s Law.
3 Flow Equation for a Confined or Leaky Aquifer.
4 Flow Equation for an Unconfined Aquifer.
5 Initial and Boundary Conditions.
6 Data Collection.
7 Selection of Numerical Models.
8 Parameter Estimation (Parameter Identification).
10 Parameter Uncertainty, Parameter Structure, and Optimum Parameter Dimension.
11 Model Structure Error (Parameter Structure Error).
12 Generalized Inverse Procedure.
29. SURFACE RUNOFF GENERATION (Keith Beven).
1 Introduction: Defining Runoff.
2 Generation of Subsurface Runoff.
3 Generation of Surface Runoff.
4 Effect of Heterogeneity.
5 Importance of Runoff in Grid–Scale Land Surface Modeling for GCMs.
30. FLOW ROUTING (D. L. Fread).
2 Storage Routing Models.
3 Simplified Hydraulic Routing Models.
4 Dynamic Routing Model.
31. HYDROLOGIC MODELING FOR RUNOFF FORECASTING (Hoshin Gupta).
2 Modeling and Complexity.
3 Model Parameter Estimation, Calibration, and Evaluation.
4 Forecasting and State Updating.
5 Emerging Directions.
32. STOCHASTIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MODELING OF HYDROCLIMATIC PROCESSES (Jose´ D. Salas and Roger A. Pielke, Sr.).
2 General Characteristics of Hydroclimatic Processes.
3 Stochastic Analysis and Properties of Hydroclimatic Time Series.
4 Stochastic Models and Modeling Techniques.
33. STOCHASTIC SIMULATION OF PRECIPITATION AND STREAMFLOW PROCESSES (Jose´ D. Salas, Jorge A. Ramý´rez, Paolo Burlando, and Roger A. Pielke, Sr.).
1 Stochastic Simulation of Precipitation.
2 Stochastic Simulation of Streamflow.
3 Temporal and Spatial Disaggregation Models.
4 Temporal and Spatial Aggregation Models.
5 Scaling Issues and Downscaling.
34. STOCHASTIC FORECASTING OF PRECIPITATION AND STREAMFLOW PROCESSES (Juan B. Valde´ s, Paolo Burlando, and Jose´ D. Salas).
2 Adaptive Prediction: The Kalman Filter.
3 Stochastic Precipitation Forecasting.
4 Stochastic Streamflow Forecasting.
35. REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS IN HYDROLOGY (Edwin T. Engman and Nandish Mattikalli).
3 Snow Hydrology.
4 Soil Moisture.
7 Water and Energy Balance Models.
8 Geographical Information Systems.
9 Summary and Conclusions.
36. FLOODS (Steven Jennings and Eve Gruntfest).
2 Definition of Floods.
3 Factors That Lead to Flooding.
4 Discussion of Nonstructural Measures.
SECTION 3: SOCIETAL IMPACTS.
37. CLIMATE AND SOCIETY (Michael H. Glantz).
38. HOUSEHOLD FOOD SECURITY AND COPING WITH CLIMATIC VARIABILITY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES (Thomas E. Downing and Yolande Stowell).
2 Case Studies of Vulnerability and Coping.
3 Approaches to Coping, Capacity, and Vulnerability.
4 Coping and Climate Prediction.
39. DROUGHT IN THE U.S. GREAT PLAINS (Donald A. Wilhite).
2 Concept of Drought: Definition and Types.
3 Drought Climatology of the Great Plains.
4 Impacts of Drought.
5 Drought Management.
40. FLOODS ON THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER SYSTEM OF THE UNITED STATES (Stanley A. Changnon).
2 Efforts to Control Flooding: 1851 to Present.
3 Impacts from Flooding.
42. HURRICANE AS AN EXTREME METEOROLOGICAL EVENT (Roger A. Pielke, Jr., and Roger A. Pielke, Sr.).
1 Introduction: Understanding Societal Responses to Extreme Weather Events.
2 Hurricanes Defined.
3 Hurricanes in North American History.
4 Geographic and Seasonal Distribution: Origin.
5 Hurricane Impacts on Ocean and Land.
43. EL NIÑO IN AUSTRALIA (Neville Nicholls).
2 El Niño–Southern Oscillation Effect on Australian Climate.
3 Discovery of Effect of El Niño–Southern Oscillation on Australia.
4 Ecological Impacts of El Niño–Southern Oscillation.
5 El Niño–Southern Oscillation and Vegetation Changes.
6 Impacts of El Niño–Southern Oscillation on Australian Crops.
44. BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIETAL IMPACTS OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY: AN EXAMPLE FROM PERUVIAN FISHERIES (Kenneth Broad).
2 What Is ENSO?
3 Peruvian Fisheries Sector.
4 Artisanal Subsector.
5 Industrial Subsector.
6 Policy Implications of Climate Information.
45. DROUGHT IN SOUTH AFRICA (Coleen Vogel).
2 Biophysical Dimensions of Drought in South Africa.
3 Rainfall Variability.
4 Causes of Droughts in South Africa.
41. DROUGHT IN NORTHWEST AFRICA (Will Swearingen and Abdellatif Bencherifa).
2 Increasing Vulnerability to Drought.
3 Field Research to Assess Linkages between Human Activities and Drought.
5 Classifying Droughts.
6 Impacts of Droughts in South Africa.
7 Drought Management and Policy Initiatives.
46. TRANSBOUNDARY FISHERIES: PACIFIC SALMON (Kathleen A. Miller and Mary W. Downton).
2 Salmon Abundance: Climate and Other Influences.
3 History of Harvest Management.
4 Recent Conflict.
5 Current Agreement and Prospects for the Future.
47. TRANSBOUNDARY RIVER FLOW CHANGES (Roger S. Pulwarty).
3 The Nile: Centuries of Change.
4 The Colorado: Decadal–Scale Variations.
5 The Parana´–Paraguay River Basin: Interannual Variability and Extreme Events.
8 Importance of Linking Human and Physical Aspects.
48. LESSONS FROM THE RISING CASPIAN (Igor S. Zonn).
2 Nature of Sea–Level Changes in Caspian Sea.
3 The Caspian Rises.
4 Societal Impacts of Sea–Level Rise.
5 Sea–Level Change as a Global Problem.
49. ACID RAIN AND SOCIETY (Paulette Middleton).
2 Acid Rain: The Phenomenon.
3 Definitions of Acid Rain.
4 Sources of Acidity.
5 Effects of Acid Rain.
6 Social Response to Acid Rain.
7 Current Conditions.
8 Keeping a Broad Basis of Assessment and Action.
50. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE (Stewart J. Cohen).
1 Science–Policy Challenge.
2 Need for Integrated Assessment of Global Climate Change.
3 Methodology for Impact Assessment of Climate Change Scenarios.
4 Summary of Case Studies.
5 Lessons and a Look Ahead.
51. IMPACTS OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE DEPLETION (Michele M. Betsill).
2 Impacts of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.
3 International Responses to Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.
4 Remaining Challenges in Addressing Stratospheric Ozone Depletion.
52. TROPICAL DEFORESTATION AND CLIMATE (Roger A. Sedjo).
2 Human Influences in the Tropics.
3 Values of Forests.
4 Deforestation in the Tropics.
5 Similarities with Earlier Deforestations.
6 Timber Harvests in the Tropics.
53. DESERTIFICATION (R. L. Heathcote).
1 Introduction: Origins of Concern.
2 Defining the Phenomenon.
3 Documenting Desertification.
4 Explaining Desertification.
5 Future of Desertification.
54. IMAGINABLE SURPRISES (Stephen H. Schneider).
3 Overcome or Just Manage Uncertainty.
5 Application to Global Change.
BRADLEY R. COLMAN, ScD, is Science Operations Officer for the National Weather Association in Seattle, Washington, and holds affiliate faculty positions with the University of Washington and the University of Idaho.
Both are Fellows of the American Meteorology Society.