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Your Project Management Coach. Best Practices for Managing Projects in the Real World

  • ID: 2247283
  • Book
  • February 2012
  • Region: Global
  • 504 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
If you manage projects, meet your coach!

Many projects fail to deliver "on time and within budget."?These failures are often the result of poor project management skills. Your Project Management Coach provides a hands–on, pragmatic approach to solving real–world project management problems. Using richly illustrated case examples, the authors show how to apply proven project management techniques to achieve optimum results. The companion website provides forms and templates you can use to put the ideas in the book into action. Whether you're an experienced project manager looking for specific solutions or are new to project management, you'll find a gold mine of practical, field–tested advice.

What you will learn

Elements that define a project, including the problem, goal, objectives, and success criteria

How to plan a project, including how to identify and estimate the work and cost

Best practices for building a realistic schedule, using work estimates, resource availability, and more

How to manage quality, risk, and change

Techniques for evaluating progress and performance

Methods for balancing scope, time, and cost, as well as resources, quality, and risk

Why you want to document lessons learned and archive project information

When your organization needs a project management office or project portfolio management

You can also use this book to assist in your preparation for the PMP Certification Exam.


to find sample project management documents, a link to the authors' blog, and more
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown
Introduction xxix

Part I Understanding Projects and Project Management 1

Chapter 1 Getting to Know Projects 3

What Is a Project? 3

A Project Is a Unique Endeavor 5

A Project Has Clearly Defined Objectives and Deliverables 5

A Project Has a Beginning and an End 7

A Project Usually Has a Budget 8

How Do Projects Differ from Other Work? 9

Summary 10

Coach s Review 10

Test Your Knowledge 10

Project Challenge 10

Chapter 2 Getting to Know Project Management 11

What Is Project Management? 12

Project Management Processes: Start to Finish 13

Initiating a Project 14

Planning a Project 15

Executing a Project 17

Monitoring and Controlling a Project 18

Closing a Project 19

Balancing Scope, Time, Cost, and Quality 20

Project Management Methodologies 21

Traditional Waterfall Project Management 21

Iterative and Agile Project Management 22

Project Management Knowledge Areas 23

Scope Management 24

Time Management 25

Cost Management 25

Human Resource Management 25

Procurement Management 26

Communication Management 26

Quality Management 26

Risk Management 27

Integration Management 27

Who Makes a Good Project Manager? 28

Business Savvy 28

Technical Skills 28

Soft Skills 29

Varying Viewpoints 29

Delegating 30

Leadership and Interpersonal Skills 30

Flexibility 30

Doing the Right Things for the Project 30

Summary 30

Coach s Review 31

Test Your Knowledge 31

Project Challenge 31

Part II Planning a Project 33

Chapter 3 Getting a Project Off the Ground 35

From Idea to Project: An Overview of

Project Initiation 36

Defi ning a Project 37

Discovering the Problem or Opportunity 40

Articulating the Project Goal and Objectives 44

Developing the Project Goal 44

Creating the Project Objectives 45

Deciding on the Project Strategy 46

Brainstorming Possibilities 46

Identifying Constraints 47

Choosing the Right Strategy 48

Gathering Requirements 49

Starting with Broad Requirements 49

Mining for Requirements 49

Differentiating and Prioritizing Requirements 50

What Constitutes Success? 51

Documenting Project Scope 52

Elements of the Scope Statement 53

Controlling Scope Creep 55

Specifying the Deliverables 57

Identifying Risks, Assumptions, and Constraints 58

Working with Risks 58

Working with Assumptions 59

Working with Constraints 59

Identifying the Project Stakeholders 60

Preparing the Project Proposal 62

Getting Approval or Sign–Off 65

Publicizing the Project Charter 66

Preparing a Project Charter 67

Distributing the Project Charter 68

Assembling the Project Notebook 68

Using the Project Notebook for Approved Projects 69

Using the Project Notebook for Tabled or

Denied Projects 69

Choosing the Form of the Project Notebook 69

Summary 71

Coach s Review 71

Test Your Knowledge 71

Project Challenge 72

Chapter 4 Getting to Know a Project Plan 73

What Work Has to Be Done? 74

Identifying Work 74

Organizing Work into Major Categories 74

How Much Will the Project Cost? 75

Obtaining Early Cost Estimates 75

Building a Budget 75

Who Will Do the Work? 76

An Introduction to Project Resources 76

Identifying Resources 77

When Will the Project Be Done? 77

What You Need to Build a Schedule 78

Brick Wall Deadlines Versus Soft Date Targets 80

How Will the Project Be Managed? 80

The Project Manager and Managing Stakeholders 81

Setting Ground Rules 81

Defining Management Processes 81

Remembrance of Projects Past 82

Summary 83

Coach s Review 83

Test Your Knowledge 83

Project Challenge 84

Chapter 5 Identifying the Work to Be Completed 85

Understanding the Work Breakdown Structure 86

What Is a Work Breakdown Structure? 86

Why Is the WBS Essential? 87

Identifying Work 88

Who Helps Identify Work? 88

Jump–Starting with Other Sources 88

Planning as a Group 89

Identifying Work from the Top Down 90

Identifying Work from the Bottom Up 92

How Much Is Enough? 93

Validating the WBS 95

Organizing Work in the WBS 96

Calling Out Deliverables 97

Formatting Your WBS 97

Naming Your WBS 99

Numbering Your WBS 99

Specifying Task Details 101

Summary 102

Coach s Review 102

Test Your Knowledge 102

Project Challenge 103

Chapter 6 Estimating Work and Cost 105

Who Should Estimate a Project? 106

Using a Core Planning Team 106

Obtaining Estimates from Team Members 107

Managing the Uncertainty of Estimates 107

When to Use Different Levels of Estimates 108

Preventing Problems from Padded Estimates 109

Preparing Estimates 110

The Difference between Duration and Effort 110

Estimating Methods 111

Reusing Existing Information 112

Engaging Experts 112

Using a Parametric Model or Estimating Tool 112

Applying the Delphi Technique 113

Using Optimistic, Pessimistic, and Most Likely Estimates 114

Estimating from the Top Down 115

Estimating from the Bottom Up 115

Estimating Project Costs 115

What Goes into Labor Costs? 116

Material, Equipment, and Facility Costs 116

Estimating Other Costs 117

Building a Budget 117

Summary 118

Coach s Review 118

Test Your Knowledge 118

Project Challenge 118

Chapter 7 Planning Project Resources 121

Documenting Roles and Responsibilities 122

Who s Involved with What 123

Levels of Involvement 124

Identifying Resource Needs 125

Types of Resources 125

Breaking Down Resource Needs 126

Building a Project Organization Chart 127

Preparing a Resource Plan 127

Summary 128

Coach s Review 128

Test Your Knowledge 129

Project Challenge 129

Chapter 8 Building a Schedule 131

Tools for Building a Schedule 132

Sequencing with Dependencies 135

Setting Up Predecessors and Successors 135

Understanding the Dependency Types 136

Starting to Schedule 137

Understanding the Critical Path 138

Scheduling with Lead and Lag Time 139

Applying Date Constraints 140

Keeping Date Constraints Flexible 141

Scheduling Specific Dates 142

Marking Deadlines 142

Indicating Milestones 142

Assigning Resources to Tasks 143

Adding Generic Resources 143

Adding Specifi c Resources 144

Assigning Multiple Resources to One Task 144

Modeling a Realistic Schedule 145

Scheduling around Nonworking Time 146

Defi ning Non–Project Time 146

Adjusting Tasks for Resource Productivity 147

Managing Part–Timers and Multitaskers 147

Scheduling with the Critical Chain Method 148

Working Back from the Finish Date 148

Balancing Constrained Resources 149

Adding Buffers 149

Optimizing the Schedule 149

Shortening the Schedule 150

Reducing Project Costs 151

Balancing Resource Assignments 152

Summary 153

Coach s Review 154

Test Your Knowledge 154

Project Challenge 154

Chapter 9 Planning for Quality 155

Defining Quality 156

Quality and the Requirements Document 157

Constraints on Quality 158

Quality Standards and Methods 158

Developing the Quality Plan 159

Elements of the Quality Management Plan 160

Understanding the Cost of Quality 161

Integrating the Quality Management Plan 161

Taking Responsibility for Quality 161

Building in Excellence with QA 162

Evaluating Quality Results 162

Implementing Corrective Actions 163

Verifying the Standards with QC 164

Measuring and Recording Quality 165

Finding Causes of Quality Problems 166

Summary 166

Coach s Review 167

Test Your Knowledge 167

Project Challenge 167

Chapter 10 Setting Up a Communication Plan 169

Guidelines for Good Communication 170

What Is Communication? 170

How to Get Your Message Across 172

The Importance of Listening 174

The Components of a Communication Plan 175

Who Are the Audiences? 176

The Project Sponsor 177

Management Stakeholders 177

Team Members 177

External Audiences 177

What Do You Communicate? 178

What Information Do Audiences Need? 178

Information for Management Stakeholders 178

Functional Managers 180

Team Members 180

Status Reporting 180

Status from and to Team Members 181

Status for Management 183

What s the Best Communication Method? 184

In–Person Meetings 184

Videoconferencing and Conference Calls 184

Email 185

Telephone 187

Written Documentation 187

Who s Responsible? 187

Frequency and Timing 188

Summary 188

Coach s Review 189

Test Your Knowledge 189

Project Challenge 189

Chapter 11 Setting Up a Change Management Plan 191

When to Manage Changes 192

When You Don t Manage Changes 192

When You Do Manage Changes 193

Who Sits on a Change Review Board 193

The Anatomy of a Change Management Process 194

Defi ning the Baseline Documents 195

Documenting a Change Request 195

Using a Change Request Form 195

Tracking a Change Request 197

Evaluating a Change Request 198

Making Decisions about Change Requests 199

Updating the Baseline Documents 200

Monitoring Change Requests 201

Summary 201

Coach s Review 201

Test Your Knowledge 201

Project Challenge 202

Chapter 12 Managing Risk 203

Identifying Risks to a Project 204

Analyzing the Risks 208

Rating Risks as Low, Medium, or High 208

Rating Risks Numerically 209

Recording the Risk Ratings and Scores 210

Choosing the Risks to Manage 210

Planning Risk Responses 211

Planning Responses to Negative Risks 212

Planning Responses to Positive Risks 214

Compiling the Risk Management Plan 215

Establishing Contingencies 216

Building in a Schedule Buffer 217

Setting Up Contingency Funds 218

Tracking Risks 218

When a Risk Becomes Reality 220

Tracking Issues 221

Summary 222

Coach s Review 222

Test Your Knowledge 222

Project Challenge 223

Part III Executing a Project 225

Chapter 13 Kicking Off a Project 227

Preparing to Execute the Project 228

Obtaining Approval 228

Saving Project Baselines 229

Updating the Project Notebook 230

Obtaining Resources 231

Obtaining In–House Resources 231

Procuring Resources from Vendors 232

Soliciting Vendors 232

Selecting Vendors 233

Contracting 233

Next Steps 234

Holding a Kickoff Meeting 235

Implementing Your Plans 235

Summary 236

Coach s Review 236

Test Your Knowledge 236

Project Challenge 237

Chapter 14 Taming Processes, Problems, and Confl icts 239

Defi ning Project Processes 240

What Makes a Good Process? 240

Making Processes a Success 241

Defeating Poor Processes 243

Guidelines for Effectiveness 244

Making Decisions and Solving Problems 244

Focus on What s Important 244

Define the Problem 246

Prioritize 246

Consider Your Options 246

Ask for Help 247

Making Things Happen 247

How to Resolve Confl icts 248

Summary 250

Coach s Review 250

Test Your Knowledge 250

Project Challenge 250

Chapter 15 The Keys to Successful Meetings 251

Running Effective Meetings 252

Planning a Meeting 252

Setting the Agenda 253

Inviting Participants 254

Preparing for the Meeting 255

Starting on Time 256

Setting Expectations 256

Facilitating the Meeting 257

Ending on Time 258

Types of Project Meetings 258

Kickoff Meetings 258

Project Status Meetings 259

Management Meetings 260

Brainstorming Meetings 261

Planning Meetings 262

Following Up after Meetings 263

Documenting Decisions and Action Items 264

Adjusting the Project Plan 264

Summary 264

Coach s Review 265

Test Your Knowledge 265

Project Challenge 265

Chapter 16 Transforming People into a Team 267

Developing a Team 267

Turning Individuals into a Team 268

Building Relationships with Your People 269

Increasing Your Influence 272

Evaluating People s Performance 273

Finding Out What s Going On 273

Working with Line Managers 274

Handling People Problems 275

Summary 275

Coach s Review 276

Test Your Knowledge 276

Project Challenge 276

Part IV Monitoring and Controlling 277

Chapter 17 Gathering Progress Information 279

Choosing the Data to Collect 280

Schedule and Cost Data 280

Quality Data 282

Issues and Risks 282

Determining the Level of Detail 283

Obtaining Time and Status 283

Choosing the Frequency 283

Sources of Data 284

Summary 286

Coach s Review 287

Test Your Knowledge 287

Project Challenge 287

Chapter 18 Evaluating Progress and Performance 289

Evaluating Progress and Variance 290

Reviewing Milestones 290

Evaluating Variances 291

Earned Value Analysis 293

Understanding Earned Value Measures 293

Planned Value 293

Earned Value 294

Actual Cost 294

Analyzing Performance with Earned Value 295

Evaluating Earned Value Measures in a Graph 295

Using Additional Earned Value Indicators 296

Evaluating Financials 297

Determining the Payback Period 297

Identifying the Net Present Value 298

Calculating the Internal Rate of Return 300

Summary 300

Coach s Review 301

Test Your Knowledge 301

Project Challenge 301

Chapter 19 Getting a Plan Back on Track 303

Ways to Correct Course 304

Fast–Tracking a Project Schedule 304

Which Tasks Should You Fast–Track? 304

Fast–Tracking Options 305

Crashing a Schedule 305

Which Tasks Should You Crash? 306

Other Crashing Considerations 307

Using Different Resources 308

Asking People to Work Overtime 308

Reducing Scope 309

Who Approves Course Corrections 310

Getting a Project Out of Trouble 311

Recognizing the Problem 311

Evaluating the Situation 312

Preparing a Recovery Plan 312

Monitoring the Recovery 313

Summary 313

Coach s Review 314

Test Your Knowledge 314

Project Challenge 314

Part V Closing the Project 315

Chapter 20 Obtaining Acceptance and Other Wrap–Up Tasks 317

Determining Whether the Project Is a Success 318

Developing Acceptance Tests 318

Running Acceptance Tests 319

Obtaining Sign–Off 320

Documenting the Project: The Project Closeout Report 320

Summarizing the Project 321

Quantifying Results 321

Financial, Legal, and Administrative Closeout 323

Project Transitions 324

Handing Off Information 324

Transitioning Resources 325

Summary 325

Coach s Review 326

Test Your Knowledge 326

Project Challenge 326

Chapter 21 Documenting a Project for Posterity 327

Gathering Information 328

Organizing the Project Archives 330

Beware of Too Much Information 331

Categorize Wisely 331

Do It Today 331

Offer a Roadmap 332

Storing the Project Archives 333

Summary 334

Coach s Review 334

Test Your Knowledge 334

Project Challenge 335

Chapter 22 Don t Forget Lessons Learned 337

How Lessons Learned Help 338

Gathering Lessons Learned 340

Collecting Feedback 341

Preparing for Lessons Learned Meetings 342

Conducting Lessons Learned Meetings 344

Minimizing the Fear of Lessons Learned 346

Documenting Lessons Learned 348

Deciding on the Information to Include 349

Presenting Lessons Learned 350

Disseminating Lessons Learned 352

Using Past Lessons Learned 352

Summary 353

Coach s Review 353

Test Your Knowledge 353

Project Challenge 354

Part VI Taking the Next Steps in Project Management 355

Chapter 23 Running a Project Management Office 357

Defining PMO Functions 357

Facilitating Standards and Best Practices 358

Ensuring Compliance Requirements 360

Supporting Project Methodologies 360

Providing Project Management Tools 360

Managing Resources and Communication 361

Mentoring and Training Project Managers 362

Setting Up a PMO 362

When Do You Need a PMO? 363

Understanding PMO Types 364

Specifying PMO Objectives and Services 365

Summary 366

Coach s Review 367

Test Your Knowledge 367

Project Challenge 367

Chapter 24 Managing a Portfolio of Projects 369

What Is Project Portfolio Management? 370

Evaluating and Prioritizing Projects for the Portfolio 372

Tracking and Managing the Project Portfolio 374

Tracking Portfolio Projects 375

Conducting Checkpoint Evaluations 375

Reporting on Portfolio Projects 377

Managing Portfolio Details 377

Summary 378

Coach s Review 378

Test Your Knowledge 378

Project Challenge 378

Chapter 25 Selecting the Right Projects 379

Capturing Ideas for Projects 380

Mining the Organization s Strategic Goals 380

Documenting a Project Idea 382

Tracking Project Ideas 384

Selecting Projects 385

Developing a Selection Process 385

Criteria for Selecting Projects 386

What Benefits? 387

What Cost? 387

Can It Be Done? 388

Scoring and Prioritizing Project Ideas 389

Exceptions to Selection Criteria 390

Succeeding with a Project Review Board 391

Summary 392

Coach s Review 392

Test Your Knowledge 393

Project Challenge 393

Part VII Reference 395

Appendix A Answers 397

Appendix B Forms 423

Glossary 439

Index 451
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Bonnie Biafore is a PMI–certified project manager, as well as a trainer and award–winning author. She has written numerous books on project management, small business accounting, and other topics. Teresa Stover is a technical communications and project management consultant for software, manufacturing, and education. Both are prolific writers and conduct training on project management.
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown