In Children and Number Martin Hughes proposes a new perspective on children′s early attempts to understand mathematics. He describes the surprisingly substantial knowledge about number which children acquire naturally before they start school, and contrasts this with the difficulties presented by the formal written symbolism of mathematics in the classroom. He argues that children need to build links between their informal and their formal understanding of number, and shows what happens when these links are not made.
Children and Number describes many novel ways in which young children can be helped to learn about number. The author shows that the written symbols children often invent for themselves are more meaningful to them than the symbols that they are taught. He presents simple number games for introducing children to mathematical symbols in ways they can appreciate and understand. Dr. Hughes also describes how the computer language LOGO can be adapted for young children, and shows the dramatic effect that LOGO can have on their mathematical understanding.
1. What is the Problem?.
2. Piaget under Attack.
3. Addition and Subtraction before School.
4. What′s so Hard About Two and Two.
5. Children′s Invention of Written Arithmetic.
6. The Written Number Systems of Other Cultures.
7. Understanding the Written Symbolism of Arithmetic.
8. Children′s Difficulties in School.
9. Learning through Number Games.
10. Learning with LOGO.
11. A New Approach to Number.