Greener Fischer-Tropsch Processes for Fuels and Feedstocks - Product Image

Greener Fischer-Tropsch Processes for Fuels and Feedstocks

  • ID: 2253580
  • Book
  • 390 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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How can we use our carbon–based resources in the most responsible manner? How can we most efficiently transform natural gas, coal, or biomass into diesel, jet fuel or gasoline to drive our machines? The Big Questions today are energyrelated, and the Fischer–Tropsch process provides industrially tested solutions.

This book offers a comprehensive and up–to–date overview of the Fischer–Tropsch process, from the basic science and engineering to commercial issues. It covers industrial, economic, environmental, and fundamental aspects, with a specific focus on ′green′ concepts such as sustainability, process improvement, waste–reduction, and environmental care. The result is a practical reference for researchers, engineers, and financial analysts working in the energy sector, who are interested in carbon conversion, fuel processing or synthetic fuel technologies. It is also an ideal introductory book on the Fischer–Tropsch process for graduate courses in chemistry and chemical engineering.

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PREFACE

PART ONE: Introduction

WHAT IS FISCHER –

TROPSCH?

Feedstocks for Fuel and for Chemicals Manufacture

The Problems

Fuels for Transportation

Feedstocks for the Chemical Industry

Sustainability and Renewables: Alternatives to Fossil Fuels

The Way Forward

XTL and the Fischer –

Tropsch Process (FTP)

Alternatives to Fischer –

Tropsch

PART TWO: Industrial and Economics Aspects

SYNGAS: THE BASIS OF FISCHER –

TROPSCH

Syngas as Feedstock 19

Routes to Syngas: XTL (X ¼ Gas, Coal, Biomass, and Waste)

Water–Gas Shift Reaction (WGSR)

Synthesis Gas Cleanup

Thermal and Carbon Efficiency

The XTL Gas Loop

CO2 Production and CO2 as Feedstock 46

FISCHER –

TROPSCH TECHNOLOGY

Introduction

Industrially Applied FT Technologies

FT Catalysts

Requirements for Industrial Catalysts

FT Reactors

Selecting the Right FT Technology

Selecting the FT Operating Conditions

Selecting the FT Catalyst Type

Other Factors That Affect FT Technology Selection

WHAT CAN WE DO WITH FISCHER –

TROPSCH PRODUCTS?

Introduction

Composition of Fischer –

Tropsch Syncrude

Syncrude Recovery after Fischer –

Tropsch Synthesis

Fuel Products from Fischer –

Tropsch Syncrude

Lubricants from Fischer –

Tropsch Syncrude

Petrochemical Products from Fischer –

Tropsch Syncrude

INDUSTRIAL CASE STUDIES

Introduction

A Brief History of Industrial FT Development

Industrial FT Facilities

Perspectives on Industrial Developments

OTHER INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT SYNGAS REACTIONS

Survey of CO Hydrogenation Reactions

Syngas to Methanol

Syngas to Dimethyl Ether (DME)

Syngas to Ethanol

Syngas to Acetic Acid

Higher Hydrocarbons and Higher Oxygenates

Hydroformylation

Other Reactions Based on Syngas

FISCHER –

TROPSCH PROCESS ECONOMICS

Introduction and Background

Market Outlook (Natural Gas)

Capital Cost

Operating Costs

Revenues

Economics and Sensitivity Analysis

PART THREE: Fundamental Aspects

PREPARATION OF IRON FT CATALYSTS

Introduction

High–Temperature Fischer –

Tropsch (HTFT) Catalysts

Low–Temperature Catalysts

Individual Steps

COBALT FT CATALYSTS

Introduction

Early German Work

Support Preparation

Addition of Cobalt and Promoters

Calcination

Reduction

Catalyst Transfer

Catalyst Attrition

Addendum Recent Literature Summary

OTHER FT CATALYSTS

Introduction

Ni Catalysts

Ruthenium Catalysts

Rhodium Catalysts

Other Catalysts and Promoters

SURFACE SCIENCE STUDIES RELATED TO FISCHER?TROPSCH REACTIONS

Introduction: Surfaces in Catalysts and Catalytic Cycles

Heterogeneous Catalyst Characterization

Species Detected on Surfaces

Theoretical Calculations

MECHANISTIC STUDIES RELATED TO THE FISCHER –

TROPSCH HYDROCARBON SYNTHESIS AND SOME COGNATE PROCESSES

Introduction

Basic FT Reaction: Dissociative and Associative Paths

Some Mechanisms–Related Experimental Studies

Current Views on the Mechanisms of the FT–S

Now: Toward a Consensus?

Dual FT Mechanisms

Cognate Processes: The Formation of Oxygenates in FT–S

Dual Mechanisms Summary

Improvements by Catalyst Modifications

Catalyst Activation and Deactivation Processes

Desorption and Displacement Effects

Directions for Future Researches

Caveat

PART FOUR: Environmental Aspects

FISCHER –

TROPSCH CATALYST LIFE CYCLE

Introduction

Catalyst Manufacturing

Catalyst Consumption

Catalyst Disposal

FISCHER –

TROPSCH SYNCRUDE: TO REFINE OR TO UPGRADE?

Introduction

Wax Hydrocracking and Hydroisomerization

Olefin Dimerization and Oligomerization

ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY

Introduction

Impact of FT Facilities on the Environment

Water and Wastewater Management

Solid Waste Management

Air Quality Management

Environmental Footprint of FT Refineries

PART FIVE: Future Prospects

NEW DIRECTIONS, CHALLENGES, AND OPPORTUNITIES

Introduction

Why Go Along the Fischer –

Tropsch Route?

Considerations against Fischer –

Tropsch Facilities

Opportunities to Improve Fischer –

Tropsch Facilities

Fundamental Studies: Keys to Improved FT Processes

Challenges for the Future

Conclusions

GLOSSARY

INDEX

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Peter Maitlis is Professor Emeritus of Inorganic Chemistry at the University of Sheffield. His researches are concerned with the interaction

of organic molecules with metals, where he is currently developing a closer understanding of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions. He has coauthored over 350 scientific papers as well as three books on catalysis, and has lectured extensively. His work has been recognized internationally: he was elected FRS in 1984, and was made a Socio of the Accademia dei Lincei in Rome in 1999. He has been President of the Dalton Division of the RSC, Chairman, of the SERC Chemistry Committee in the UK, and has also worked in the USA (Cornell and Harvard), and in Canada (McMaster University).

Arno de Klerk holds postgraduate qualifications in both analytical chemistry and chemical engineering. In 2001 he was appointed as research manager of the Fischer–Tropsch Refinery Catalysis group, being responsible for catalysis research related to conversion processes for upgrading Fischer–Tropsch syncrude to fuels and chemicals. In 2009 he relocated from South Africa to Canada and took up his present position at the University of Alberta. He has authored publications in the fields of engineering, catalysis, chemistry and refining. He is author of the book ′Fischer–Tropsch Refining′ also published by Wiley–VCH

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