High-k Gate Dielectrics for CMOS Technology

  • ID: 2253866
  • Book
  • 590 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A state–of–the–art overview of high–k dielectric materials for advanced field–effect transistors, from both a fundamental and a technological

viewpoint, summarizing the latest research results and development solutions. As such, the book clearly discusses the advantages of these

materials over conventional materials and also addresses the issues that accompany their integration into existing production technologies.

Aimed at academia and industry alike, this monograph combines introductory parts for newcomers to the field as well as advanced sections

with directly applicable solutions for experienced researchers and developers in materials science, physics and electrical engineering.
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Preface XV

List of Contributors XVII

Color Plates XXIII

Part One Scaling and Challenge of Si–based CMOS 1

1 Scaling and Limitation of Si–based CMOS 3
Gang He, Zhaoqi Sun, Mao Liu, and Lide Zhang

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Scaling and Limitation of CMOS 4

1.3 Toward Alternative Gate Stacks Technology 16

1.4 Improvements and Alternative to CMOS Technologies 22

1.4.1 Improvement to CMOS

1.5 Potential Technologies Beyond CMOS 23

1.6 Conclusions 24

References 25

Part Two High–k Deposition and Materials Characterization 31

2 Issues in High–k Gate Dielectrics and its Stack Interfaces 33
Hong–Liang Lu and David Wei Zhang

2.1 Introduction 33

2.2 High–k Dielectrics 33

2.3 Metal Gates 40

2.4 Integration of High–k Gate Dielectrics with Alternative Channel Materials 45

2.5 Summary 51

References 52

3 UV Engineering of High–k Thin Films 61
Ian W. Boyd

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Gas Discharge Generation of UV (Excimer) Radiation 61

3.3 Excimer Lamp Sources Based on Silent Discharges 63

3.4 Predeposition Surface Cleaning for High–k Layers 65

3.5 UV Photon Deposition of Ta2O5 Films 66

3.6 Photoinduced Deposition of Hf1–xSixOy Layers 70

3.7 Summary 73

References 73

4 Atomic Layer Deposition Process of Hf–Based High–k GateDielectric Film on Si Substrate 77
Tae Joo Park, Moonju Cho, Hyung–Suk Jung, and Cheol Seong Hwang

4.1 Introduction 77

4.2 Precursor Effect on the HfO2 Characteristics 78

4.3 Doped and Mixed High–k 97

4.4 Summary 105

References 105

5 Structural and Electrical Characteristics of Alternative High–k Dielectrics for CMOS Applications 111
Fu–Chien Chiu, Somnath Mondal, and Tung–Ming Pan

5.1 Introduction 111

5.2 Requirement of High–k Oxide Materials 114

5.3 Rare–Earth Oxide as Alternative Gate Dielectrics 117

5.4 Structural Characteristics of High–k RE Oxide Films 118

5.5 Electrical Characteristics of High–k RE Oxide Films 132

5.6 Conclusions and Perspectives 171

References 172

6 Hygroscopic Tolerance and Permittivity Enhancement of Lanthanum Oxide (La2O3 ) for High–k Gate Insulators 185
Yi Zhao

6.1 Introduction 185

6.2 Hygroscopic Phenomenon of La2O3 Films 186

6.3 Low Permittivity Phenomenon of La2O3 Films 191

6.4 Hygroscopic Tolerance Enhancement of La2O3 Films 194

6.5 Hygroscopic Tolerance Enhancement of La2O3 Films by Ultraviolet Ozone Treatment 198

6.6 Thermodynamic Analysis of Moisture Absorption Phenomenon in High–k Gate Dielectrics 203

6.7 Permittivity Enhancement of La2O3 Films by Phase Control 205

6.8 Summary 219

References 221

7 Characterization of High–k Dielectric Internal Structure by X–Ray Spectroscopy and Reflectometry: New Approaches to Interlayer Identification and Analysis 225
Elena O. Filatova, Andrey A. Sokolov, and Igor V. Kozhevnikov

7.1 Introduction 225

7.2 Chemical Bonding and Crystalline Structure of Transition Metal Dielectrics 227

7.3 NEXAFS Investigation of Internal Structure 229

7.4 Studying the Internal Structure of High–K Dielectric Films by Hard X–Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and TEM 236

7.5 Studying the Internal Structure of High–K Dielectric Films by X–ray Reflectometry 244

References 266

8 High–k Insulating Films on Semiconductors and Metals: General Trends in Electron Band Alignment 273
Valeri V. Afanasev, Michel Houssa, and Andre Stesmans

8.1 Introduction 273

8.2 Band Offsets and IPE Spectroscopy 274

8.3 Silicon/Insulator Band Offsets 277

8.4 Band Alignment at Interfaces of High–Mobility Semiconductors 280

8.5 Metal/Insulator Barriers 284

8.6 Conclusions 289

References 289

Part Three Challenge in Interface Engineering and Electrode 293

9 Interface Engineering in the High–k Dielectric Gate Stacks 295
Shijie Wang, Yuanping Feng, and Alfred C.H. Huan

9.1 Introduction 295

9.2 High–k Oxide/Si Interfaces 295

9.3 Metal Gate/High–k Dielectric Interfaces 303

9.4 Chemical Tuning of Band Alignments for Metal Gate/High–k Oxide Interfaces 308

9.5 Summary and Discussion 314

References 315

10 Interfacial Dipole Effects on High–k Gate Stacks 319
Li Qiang Zhu

10.1 Introduction 319

10.2 Metal Gate Consideration 321

10.3 Interfacial Dipole Effects in High–k Gate Stacks 324

10.4 Observation of the Interfacial Dipole in High–k Stacks 332

10.5 Summary 348

References 349

11 Metal Gate Electrode for Advanced CMOS Application 355
Wenwu Wang, Xiaolei Wang, and Kai Han

11.1 The Scaling and Improved Performance of MOSFET Devices 355

11.2 Urgent Issues about MOS Gate Materials for Sub–0.1 µm Device Gate Stack 360

11.3 New Requirements of MOS Gate Materials for Sub–0.1 µm Device Gate Stack 365

11.4 Summary 374

References 374

Part Four Development in non–Si–based CMOS technology 379

12 Metal Gate/High–k CMOS Evolution from Si to Ge Platform 381
Albert Achin

12.1 Introduction 381

12.2 High–k/Si CMOSFETs 386

12.3 High–k/Ge CMOSFETs 392

12.4 Ge Platform 397

12.5 Conclusions 401

References 402

13 TheoreticalProgressonGaAs(001)SurfaceandGaAs/high–k Interface 407
Weichao Wang, Ka Xiong, Robert M. Wallace, and Kyeongjae Cho

13.1 Introduction 407

13.2 Computational Method 409

13.3 GaAs Surface Oxidation and Passivation 409

13.4 Origin of Gap States at the High–k/GaAs Interface and Interface Passivation 419

13.5 Conclusions 428

References 428

14 III V MOSFETs with ALD High–k Gate Dielectrics 433
Jack C. Lee and Han Zhao

14.1 Introduction 433

14.2 Surface Channel InGaAs MOSFETs with ALD Gate Oxides 436

14.3 Buried Channel InGaAs MOSFETs 450

14.4 Summary 460

References 466

Part Five High–k Application in Novel Devices


15 High–k Dielectrics in Ferroelectric Gate Field Effect Transistors for Nonvolatile Memory Applications 473
Xubing Lu

15.1 Introduction 473

15.2 Overview of High–k Dielectric Studies for FeFET Applications 477

15.3 Developing of HfTaO Buffer Layers for FeFET Applications 485

15.4 Summary 496

References 497

16 Rare–Earth Oxides as High–k Gate Dielectrics for Advanced Device Architectures 501
Pooi See Lee, Mei Yin Chan, and Peter Damarwan

16.1 Introduction 501

16.2 Key Challenges for High–k Dielectrics 502

16.3 Rare–Earth Oxides as High–k Dielectrics 506

16.4 High–k Dielectrics in Advanced Device Architecture 517

References 522

Part Six Challenge and Future Directions 531

17 The Interaction Challenges with Novel Materials in Developing High–Performance and Low–Leakage High–k/Metal Gate CMOS Transistors 533
Michael Chudzik, Siddarth Krishnan, Unoh Kwon, Mukesh Khare, Vijay Narayanan, Takashi Ando, Ed Cartier, Huiming Bu, and Vamsi Paruchuri

17.1 Introduction 533

17.2 Traditional CMOS Integration Processes 534

17.3 High–k /Metal Gate Integration Processes 536

17.4 Mobility 536

17.5 Metal Electrodes and Effective Work Function 541

17.6 Tinv Scaling and Impacts on Gate Leakage and Effective Work Function 544

17.7 Ambients and Oxygen Vacancy–Induced Modulation of Threshold Voltage 545

17.8 Reliability 547

17.9 Conclusions 550

References 551

Index 557

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Gang He is Professor at the School of Physics and Materials Science of the Anhui University, China. He obtained his academic degrees from the Institute of Solid State Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. His research interests and efforts cover the areas of the preparation, characterization, fundamental understanding and associated applications of high–k gate dielectric thin films. Due to his outstanding performance in research work, he won a scholarship award from the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2005 and a grant of the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science in 2006.

Zhaoqi Sun is the President of the School of Physics and Materials Science at the Anhui University. He graduated from Sichuan University and obtained his academic degrees from the University of Science and Technology of China. His research is focused on functional thin film materials for applications in microelectronics. Zhaoqi Sun has authored more than 140 scientific publications and has received numerous scientific awards, including the Science and Technology Award of the Anhui Province and an Outstanding Teacher Award.
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