This book presents the extensive range of analytical techniques used by scientists that may be applied to heritage materials such as paintings, metals, sculptures, written material, natural materials, synthetic polymers, textiles, tone, ceramics and glass.
An introductory chapter describes the types and chemistry of materials encountered in conservation. Chapters 2 to 10 provide a straightforward background to each of the common analytical techniques:
- Basic identification techniques
- Light examination and microscopy
- Molecular spectroscopy
- Atomic spectroscopy
- X–ray techniques
- Mass spectrometry
- Chromatography and electrophoresis
- Thermal and mechanical analysis
- Nuclear methods
An explanation of how an instrument works is provided without the excessive technical detail that can be overwhelming for the first–time user. The nature and size of a sample required for each technique is given as this is an important consideration in conservation. Additionally, for each technique, examples of the application of the method to specific types of heritage materials are provided, with the relevant literature references.
This book will be a useful source of information for those with an interest in materials conservation. While it should prove an aid to those already working in this field, the book is also aimed at those entering the field who would like to know more about the analysis of heritage materials. An in–depth knowledge of chemistry, materials science or analytical chemistry is no assumed, so those without a strong background in these fields will be able to understand the scientific concepts presented.
1.5 Natural resins.
1.6 Natural materials.
1.7 Synthetic polymers.
1.8 Dyes and pigments.
1.11 Written material.
2. Basic identification techniques.
2.2 Visual examination.
2.3 Chemical tests.
2.4 Density and specific gravity.
2.6 Heat tests.
3. Light examination and microscopy.
3.2 Infrared techniques.
3.3 Ultraviolet techniques.
3.6 Optical microscopy.
3.7 Transmission electron microscopy.
3.8 Scanning electron microscopy.
3.9 Scanning probe microscopy.
4. Molecular spectroscopy.
4.2 Infrared spectroscopy.
4.3 Raman spectroscopy.
4.4 Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy.
4.5 Photoluminescence spectroscopy.
4.6 Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
4.7 Electron spin resonance spectroscopy.
4.8 Mössbauer spectroscopy.
5. Atomic spectroscopy.
5.2 Atomic absorption spectroscopy.
5.3 Atomic emission spectroscopy.
5.4 Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy.
6. X–ray techniques.
6.2 X–ray diffraction.
6.3 X–ray fluorescence spectroscopy.
6.4 Electron microprobe analysis.
6.5 Proton induced X–ray emission.
6.6 X–ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger spectroscopy.
7. Mass spectrometry.
7.2 Molecular mass spectrometry.
7.3 Secondary ion mass spectrometry.
7.4 Atomic mass spectrometry.
8. Chromatography and electrophoresis.
8.2 Paper chromatography.
8.3 Thin layer chromatography.
8.4 Gas chromatography.
8.5 High performance liquid chromatography.
8.6 Size exclusion chromatography.
8.7 Ion chromatography.
8.8 Capillary electrophoresis.
9. Thermal and mechanical analysis.
9.2 Thermogravimetric analysis.
9.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry/Differential Thermal Analysis.
9.4 Tensile Testing.
9.5 Flexural Testing.
9.6 Thermal Mechanical Analysis.
9.7 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis.
10. Nuclear methods.
10.2 Radioisotopic dating.
10.3 Neutron activation analysis.
10.5 Neutron diffraction.
Appendix Infrared spectra of polymers.