Topics covered within this essential text include:
- Methodology for trace elemental analysis
- Sample preparation techniques for inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, including those used for aqueous and solid samples, plus details of the various extraction procedures that can be used to prepare samples
- Sample introduction procedures for plasma sources
- The inductively coupled plasma and other sources used for atomic emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry
- Fundamental aspects of atomic emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry
- Spectrometers and detectors used for plasma spectroscopy
- Interferences in atomic emission spectroscopy
- Principles of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS)
- Types of mass spectrometers used for ICP MS
- Interferences in ICP MS and their remedies, including collision/reaction cells
- Isotope dilution analysis
- A range of applications for this technique, including forensic science, industrial analysis, clinical/biological analysis, materials analysis, environmental analysis, food analysis and pharmaceutical analysis
- Sample data sheets that can be used to record information in the laboratory
- A comprehensive bibliography, providing information on how to keep up–to–date with the latest developments in this field, guiding the reader to more specialized texts and sources, including books, journals and recommended web sites
Practical Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy will be invaluable to those students studying at Foundation and BTEC (HNC and HND) levels, and for those pursuing BSc, MChem, MSc and MRes courses in analytical chemistry, as well as subsidiary courses in life, environmental and food science. In addition, it will be a useful guide to those using ICP, and related techniques, in applied research and analysis.
Acronyms, Abbreviations and Symbols.
About the Author.
1. Methodology for trace elemental analysis.
1.2 Analytical terms and their definition.
1.4 Calibration strategies.
1.5 Quality assurance and the use of certified reference materials.
2. Sample preparation for inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy.
2.2 Aqueous samples.
2.2.1 Liquid–liquid extraction.
2.2.2 Ion exchange.
2.3 Solid samples.
2.3.1 Decomposition techniques.
2.3.2 Microwave digestion.
2.3.3 Dry ashing.
2.4 Extraction procedures.
2.4.1 Single extraction procedures.
2.4.2 Sequential extraction procedures.
2.4.3 Enzymatic digestion procedures.
3. Sample introduction for inductively coupled plasmas.
3.3 Spray Chambers and desolvation systems.
3.4 Discrete sample introduction.
3.5 Continuous sample introduction.
3.6 Hydride and cold vapour techniques.
4. The inductively coupled plasma and other sources.
4.2 Inductively coupled plasma.
4.3 Direct current plasma.
4.4 Microwave induced plasma.
4.5 Glow discharge.
5. Inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectroscopy .
5.1 Fundamentals of spectroscopy.
5.1.1 Origins of atomic spectra.
5.1.2 Spectral line intensity.
5.1.3 Spectral line broadening.
5.2 Plasma spectroscopy.
5.3.1 Sequential .
6. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.
6.2 Principle of operation.
6.2.1 Ion source: ICP.
6.4 Mass spectrometer.
6.4.1 Quadrupole mass spectrometer.
6.4.2 Sector field mass spectrometer.
6.4.3 Ion trap mass spectrometer.
6.4.4 time–of–flight mass spectrometer.
6.6 Interferences .
6.6.1 Isobaric interferences.
6.6.2 Molecular interferences.
6.6.3 Remedies for molecular interferences.
6.6.4 Non–spectral interferences: matrix–induced.
6.6.5 Remedies for non–spectral interferences.
6.7 Isotope Dilution Analysis.
6.8 Mass spectral interpretation.
7. Selected applications.
7.1 Forensic Science: Document analysis.
7.2 Industrial Analysis: Coal.
7.3 Clinical / Biological Analysis: Whole blood and urine .
7.4. Materials Analysis: Gadolinium Oxide.
7.5. Environmental Analysis: Soil .
7.6. Food Analysis: Milk products.
7.7. Pharmaceutical Analysis.
8. Further Information.
8.1 Recording of information in the laboratory.
8.2 Selected resources.
8.2.1 Keeping up–to–date.
8.2.2 Basic understanding of inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (and related issues)..
Appendix: Self assessment questions and responses.
Responses to Self–Assessment Questions.
Glossary of Terms.
SI Units and Physical Constants.