12, involve the use of a wide range of apparatus and of experimental procedures and methods of data evaluation, all of which must be utilized properly if reliable estimates of chemical concentrations and their associated uncertainties are to be obtained. While this is true of any chemical analysis, modern advances in trace–level analysis are critically dependent on developments in mass spectrometry.
The approach adopted throughout the book is to emphasize the fundamentals underlying the scientific instruments and methodologies, illustrated by historically important developments and more recent innovations. However, discussions of the fundamentals are reinforced and related to the real–world by two chapters dedicated to method development and validation. Finally, how "the fundamental things apply" to real–world problems is illustrated in the final chapter devoted to representative examples from a wide range of application areas.
This book does not cover important branches of mass spectrometry that provide accurate and precise quantitative measurements of relative concentrations, e.g. variations in isotopic ratios of an element by isotope ratio mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry. Rather, it is mainly concerned with determinations of absolute amount of substance, particularly for small organic molecules present at trace levels in complex matrices.
- covers analysis of "small" (< 2000 Da) organic molecules, in environmental and biomedical matrices (trace level analyses of metals and other elements are not included).
- provides a comprehensive introduction to the ancillary techniques and tools, including statistical analysis, that must be coordinated to provide a reliable result for a trace–level quantitative analysis by mass spectrometry.
- discusses method development and validation, GLP, etc., in the context of a fitness–for–purpose approach that is applicable to any quantitative analytical method.
- written at a level that presupposes some basic undergraduate–level knowledge of chemistry, physics, and mathematics and statistics.
- treats the more recent developments in quantitative analysis of specific proteins in biological systems using proteolytic peptides as surrogate analytes.
Any book such as this can only be regarded as a preparation for the real learning process in this demanding practical art, namely "learning by doing" i.e. working on real–life problems in a laboratory. However, this book will be useful both in providing enough background information ( learning from others ) that the first exposure to the "learning by doing" process will not seem quite so daunting, and also will provide useful background for evaluation of new technologies as they appear.
1 Measurement, Dimensions and Units.
1.2 The International System of Units (SI).
1.3 Mass–to–Charge Ratio in Mass Spectrometry.
1.4 Achievable Precision in Measurement of SI Base Quantities.
1.5 Molecular Mass Limit for Trace Quantitation by Mass Spectrometry.
1.6 Summary of Key Concepts.
2 Tools of the Trade I. The Classical Tools.
2.2 Analytical and Internal Standards: Reference Materials.
2.3 The Analytical Balance.
2.4 Measurement and Dispensing of Volume.
2.5 Preparation of Solutions for Calibration.
2.6 Introduction to Calibration Methods for Quantitative Analysis.
2.7 Summary of Key Concepts.
3 Tools of the Trade II. Theory of Chromatography.
3.2 General Principles of Chemical Separations.
3.3 Summary of Important Concepts.
3.4 Plate Theory of Chromatography.
3.5 Nonequilibrium Effects in Chromatography: the van Deemter Equation.
3.6 Gradient Elution.
3.7 Capillary Electrophoresis and Capillary Electrochromatography.
Appendix 3.1 Derivation of the Plate Theory Equation for Chromatographic Elution.
Appendix 3.2 Transformation of the Plate Theory Elution Equation from Poisson to Gaussian Form.
Appendix 3.3 A Brief Introduction to Snyder s Theory of Gradient Elution.
List of Symbols Used in Chapter 3.
4 Tools of the Trade III. Separation Practicalities.
4.2 The Analyte and the Matrix.
4.3 Extraction and Clean–Up: Sample Preparation Methods.
4.4 Chromatographic Practicalities.
4.5 Summary of Key Concepts.
Appendix 4.1 Responses of Chromatographic Detectors: Concentration vs Mass Flux Dependence.
5 Tools of the Trade IV. Interfaces and Ion Sources for Chromatography Mass Spectrometry.
5.2 Ion Sources that can Require a Discrete Interface Between Chromatograph and Source.
5.3 Ion Sources not Requiring a Discrete Interface.
5.4 Source Analyzer Interfaces Based on Ion Mobility.
5.5 Summary of Key Concepts.
5.1 Appendix 5.1: Methods of Sample Preparation for Analysis by MALDI.
6 Tools of the Trade V. Mass Analyzers for Quantitation: Separation of Ions by m/z Values.
6.2 Mass Analyzer Operation Modes and Tandem Mass Spectrometry.
6.3 Motion of Ions in Electric and Magnetic Fields.
6.4 Mass Analyzers.
6.5 Activation and Dissociation of Ions.
6.6 Vacuum Systems.
6.7 Summary of Key Concepts.
Appendix 6.1 Interaction of Electric and Magnetic Fields with Charged Particles.
Appendix 6.2 Leak Detection.
Appendix 6.3 List of Symbols Used in Chapter 6.
7 Tools of the Trade VI. Ion Detection and Data Processing.
7.2 Faraday Cup Detectors.
7.3 Electron Multipliers.
7.4 Post–Detector Electronics.
7.5 Summary of Key Concepts.
8 Tools of the Trade VII: Statistics of Calibration, Measurement and Sampling.
8.2 Univariate Data: Tools and Tests for Determining Accuracy and Precision.
8.3 Bivariate Data: Tools and Tests for Regression and Correlation.
8.4 Limits of Detection and Quantitation.
8.5 Calibration and Measurement: Systematic and Random Errors.
8.6 Statistics of Sampling of Heterogeneous Matrices.
8.7 Summary of Key Concepts.
Appendix 8.1 A Brief Statistics Glossary.
Appendix 8.2 Symbols Used in Discussion of Calibration Methods.
9 Method Development and Fitness for Purpose.
9.2 Fitness for Purpose and Managing Uncertainty.
9.3 Issues Between Analyst and Client: Examining What s at Stake.
9.4 Formulating a Strategy.
9.5 Method Development.
9.6 Matrix Effects.
9.7 Contamination and Carryover.
9.8 Establishing the Final Method.
10 Method Validation and Sample Analysis in a Controlled Laboratory Environment.
10.2 Method Validation.
10.3 Conduct of the Validaton.
10.4 Examples of Methods and Validations Fit for Purpose.
10.5 Validated Sample Analysis.
11 Examples from the Literature.
11.2 Food Contaminants.
11.3 Anthropogenic Pollutants in Water.
11.4 GC MS Analyses of Persistent Environmental Pollutants.
11.5 Bioanalytical Applications.
11.6 Quantitative Proteomics.
11.7 Analysis of Endogenous Analytes.