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Analysis of Chemical Warfare Degradation Products

  • ID: 2326246
  • Book
  • 160 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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Lethal chemical warfare agents, nerve agents and vesicants, although supposedly not used in warfare today, still pose major threats to life around the world and our surrounding environment. Rapid and sensitive methods are required and under continuous development to identify those agents and their degradation products. This practical text describes the chemistry of nerve agents and vesicants, their decomposition and their degradation products, as well as their toxicity, including a list of detection and analysis techniques for these agents and their degradation products.

Featured in this book is:

  • A history of chemical warfare agents and details of the CWC
  • Coverage of the toxicity of chemical warfare agents and their degradation products
  • The analysis of such agents including separation and detection techniques
  • The formation, detection and analysis of organophosphorus nerve agent degradation products
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1 Historical Milieu.

1.1 Organophosphorus Nerve Agents.

1.2 Blister Agents.

1.3 Sternutator Agents.

1.4 Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).

1.4.1 Schedule of Chemicals.

1.4.2 Destruction of Chemical Weapons.


2 Toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents and their Degradation Products.

2.1 Organophosphorus Nerve Agent Toxicity.

2.1.1 Toxicity Mechanism Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition.

2.1.2 Exposure.

2.1.3 Response, Treatment and Prevention.

2.2 Toxicity of Nerve Agent Degradation Products.

2.2.1 Toxicity of GA (Tabun) Degradation Products.

2.2.2 Toxicity of GB (Sarin) Degradation Products.

2.2.3 Toxicity of GD (Soman) Degradation Products.

2.2.4 Toxicity of GF (Cyclosarin) Degradation Products.

2.2.5 Toxicity of VX Degradation Products.

2.3 Toxicity of Blister Agents.

2.4 Toxicity of Sternutator Agents.

2.4.1 Toxicity of Degradation Products of Sternutator Agents.


3 Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Minimally Invasive Detection Techniques.

3.3 Separation and Detection Techniques.

3.3.1 Capillary Electrophoresis.

3.3.2 Ion Mobility Spectrometry.

3.3.3 Gas Chromatography (GC)/Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS).

3.3.4 Liquid Chromatography (LC)/Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (LC–MS).

3.3.5 Desorption Electrospray Ionization and Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry.


4 Chemical Warfare Agent Degradation Products.

4.1 Analysis of Nerve Agent Degradation Products.

4.1.1 Sample Preparation.

4.1.2 Liquid Liquid Extraction (Pre–concentration).

4.1.3 Solid Phase Extraction (SPE).

4.1.4 Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME).

4.1.5 Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE).

4.1.6 Derivatization.

4.2 Analytical Techniques.

4.2.1 Gas Chromatography (GC).

4.2.2 Liquid Chromatography (LC).

4.2.3 Elemental Speciation.

4.2.4 Ion Mobility.

4.2.5 Capillary Electrophoresis.

4.3 Analysis of Sulfur Mustard Degradation Products.

4.4 Analysis of Sternutator Degradation Products.




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Karolin K. Kroening
Renee N. Easter
Douglas D. Richardson
Stuart A. Willison
Joseph A. Caruso
Note: Product cover images may vary from those shown