From the fundamentals to advanced science to the most promising R&D, this book describes and illustrates how optical networking technology works. The author explains the underlying concepts, demystifies buzzwords and jargon, and instills a practical understanding of technologies and solutions, all without resorting to excessive detail. Not only do readers come to understand the current state of the technology, but they also gain valuable insight into the future of optical networking.
Following a discussion of the fundamentals of communications, the author breaks the topic down into logical components, including:
- Fiber optics, carrier networks, optical networking equipment, and broadband services
- How glass fiber is used as a physical medium for communications and how light is used to represent information
- Comparison of single– and multi–mode fiber and vendors
- Concept of fiber rings, including the two principal strategies that carriers use to organize capacity: traditional SONET/SDH channels and newer IP/ATM bandwidth on demand services
- Latest wave of promising new equipment, configurations, and services, including Gig–E services, dark fiber, managed IP services, and virtual private networks (VPNs)
Case studies, examples, and projects help readers understand how to install, configure, and troubleshoot optical networking technologies. A glossary at the end of the book defines terms and acronyms.
With this handbook, readers come to understand why optical technologies are viewed as the best solution to meet ever–growing capacity demands. By building knowledge from a solid foundation of the basics, it is not only appropriate for network engineers, managers, and consultants, but also for any professional who needs to understand how optical networking works.
1: Optical Networking Fundamentals.
1.1 Fiber Optics: A Brief History in Time.
1.2 Distributed IP Routing.
1.3 Scalable Communications: Integrated Optical Networks.
1.4 Lightpath Establishment and Protection in Optical Networks.
1.5 Optical Network Design Using Computational Intelligence Techniques.
1.6 Distributed Optical Frame Synchronized Ring (doFSR).
1.7 Summary and Conclusions.
2: Types of Optical Networking Technology.
2.1 Use of Digital Signal Processing.
2.2 Optical Signal Processing for Optical Packet Switching Networks.
2.3 Next–Generation Optical Networks as a Value Creation Platform.
2.4 Optical Network Research in the IST Program.
2.5 Optical Networking in Optical Computing.
2.6 Summary and Conclusions.
3: Optical Transmitters.
3.1 Long–Wavelength VCSELs.
3.2 Multiwavelength Lasers.
3.3 Summary and Conclusions.
4: Types of Optical Fiber.
4.1 Strands and Processes of Fiber Optics.
4.2 The Fiber–Optic Cable Modes.
4.3 Optical Fiber Types.
4.4 Types of Cable Families.
4.5 Extending Performance.
4.6 Care, Productivity, and Choices.
4.7 Understanding Types of Optical Fiber.
4.8 Summary and Conclusions.
5: Carriers Networks.
5.1 The Carriers Photonic Future.
5.2 Carriers Optical Networking Revolution.
5.3 Flexible Metro Optical Networks.
5.4 Summary and Conclusions.
6: Passive Optical Components.
6.1 Optical Material Systems.
6.2 Summary and Conclusions.
7: Free–Space Optics.
7.1 Free–Space Optical Communication.
7.2 Corner–Cube Retroreflectors.
7.3 Free–Space Heterochronous Imaging Reception.
7.4 Secure Free–Space Optical Communication.
7.5 The Minimization of Acquisition Time.
7.6 Summary and Conclusions.
8: Optical Formats: Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)/ Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH), and Gigabit Ethernet.
8.1 Synchronous Optical Network.
8.2 Synchronous Digital Hierarchy.
8.3 Gigabit Ethernet.
8.4 Summary and Conclusions.
9: Wave Division Multiplexing.
9.1 Who Uses WDM?
9.2 Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexed Backbone Deployment.
9.3 IP–Optical Integration.
9.4 QoS Mechanisms.
9.5 Optical Access Network.
9.6 Multiple–Wavelength Sources.
9.7 Summary and Conclusions.
10: Basics of Optical Switching.
10.1 Optical Switches.
10.2 Motivation and Network Architectures.
10.3 Rapid Advances in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Technology.
10.4 Switched Optical Backbone.
10.5 Optical MEMS.
10.6 Multistage Switching System.
10.7 Dynamic Multilayer Routing Schemes.
10.8 Summary and Conclusions.
11: Optical Packet Switching.
11.1 Design for Optical Networks.
11.2 Multistage Approaches to OPS: Node Architectures for OPS.
11.3 Summary and Conclusions.
12: Optical Network Configurations.
12.1 Optical Networking Configuration Flow–Through Provisioning.
12.2 Flow–Through Provisioning at Element Management Layer.
12.3 Flow–Through Circuit Provisioning in the Same Optical Network Domain.
12.4 Flow–Through Circuit Provisioning in Multiple Optical Network Domain.
12.5 Benefits of Flow–Through Provisioning.
12.6 Testing and Measuring Optical Networks.
12.7 Summary and Conclusions.
13: Developing Areas in Optical Networking.
13.1 Optical Wireless Networking High–Speed Integrated Transceivers.
13.2 Wavelength–Switching Subsystems.
13.3 Optical Storage Area Networks.
13.4 Optical Contacting.
13.5 Optical Automotive Systems.
13.6 Optical Computing.
13.7 Summary and Conclusions.
14: Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations.
Appendix: Optical Ethernet Enterprise Case Study.
A.1 Customer Profile.
A.2 Present Mode of Operation.
A.3 Future Mode of Operation.
A.4 Comparing the Alternatives.
A.5 Summary and Conclusions.