The definitive architectural resource on designing for egress, evacuation, and life safety
Egress systems, in concert with evacuation plans and crowd management, form the fundamental basis of good life–safety design for emergency events, yet there are fewcomplete and comprehensive reference books covering the broad nature of this subject.
This book fills this gap by providing a comprehensive review of egress design and analysis, covering egress fundamentals and strategies, performance solutions, human behavior, evacuation modeling, evacuation planning, and crowd management. The authors, both recognized experts in the field, present egress concepts that are both prescriptive and performance–based, accounting for human behavior in emergency conditions as well as a range of expected hazards.
A review of historic and recent tragic life–loss fire events
An overview of prescriptive and performance–based U.S. building codes
Practical design solutions for a wide range of occupancies
Techniques for coordinating egress systems with other critical life safety systems
St. Lawrence University Laboratory Building.
Dallas Fort Worth International Airport.
International Finance Center.
Myths and Misconceptions.
Part 1. Background.
1. Building Codes and Regulations.
History and Overview of Building and Fire Codes in the United States.
Scope of Building and Fire Codes.
Application of Building and Fire Codes.
ICC Codes and Egress.
Evolution to Performance–Based Codes.
Looking to the Future.
2. Historic Events.
Iroquois Theater, Chicago, Illinois, 1903.
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, New York, New York, 1911.
Italian Hall Disaster, Calumet, Michigan, 1913.
Rhythm Club, Natchez, Mississippi, 1940.
Cocoanut Grove Nightclub Fire, Boston, Massachusetts, 1942.
Ringling Brothers, Barnum & Bailey Circus Tent Fire, Hartford, Connecticut, 1944.
Our Lady of Angels School Fire, Chicago, Illinois, 1958.
Hartford Hospital Fire, Hartford, Connecticut, 1961.
Beverly Hills Supper Club Fire, Southgate, Kentucky, 1977.
The Who Concert, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1979.
MGM Grand Fire, Las Vegas, Nevada, 1980.
Dupont Plaza, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 1986.
World Trade Center Bombing, New York, New York, 1993.
World Trade Center Collapse, New York, New York, 2001.
E2 Nightclub, Chicago, Illinois, 2003.
The Station Nightclub Fire, West Warwick, Rhode Island, 2003.
Cook County Administration Building, Chicago, Illinois, 2003.
Part 2. Egress System Fundamentals
3. Egress Strategies.
Egress System Goals and Objectives.
General Egress Strategies.
Designing for Occupants with Disabilities.
Emerging Egress Strategies.
Selecting and Evaluating Options.
4. Prescriptive Egress Concepts.
5. Supporting Systems.
Control of Combustibles.
Smoke Management Systems.
Evacuation Using Elevators.
Types of Elevators.
Part 3. Human Behavior and Performance Concepts.
6. Human Behavior Considerations for Egress System Design.
People Building Event Interaction.
Occupant Reaction and Response in Emergency Situations.
Human Behavior and Crowds.
Using Occupant Risk Factors to Aid Egress System Design.
7. Performance Egress Concepts.
Performance Egress Overview.
Safety Factors and Uncertainties.
Evacuation Time Calculation Overview.
Limitations with Engineering Calculations.
Designing for Elevator Evacuation.
Part 4. Evacuation Planning and Design
8. Evacuation Planning and Crowd Management.
Evacuation Planning Overview.
Evacuation Plan Development.
Typical Challenges with Evacuation Plans.
Roles and Responsibilities during Incidents.
Evacuation Drilling and Training.
Crowd Management Planning.
9. Design Solutions.
Air Traffic Control Towers.
Arenas, Stadia, and Sports Facilities.
Convention and Exhibit Centers.
Detention and Correctional Facilities.
Day–Care, Adult–Care, and Assisted–Living Facilities.
Historic and Existing Buildings.
Museums and Libraries.
Performing Arts Centers.
Rail Stations and Platforms.
Rail and Road Tunnels.
About the Authors.