into perspective with the requirements for further microelectronics developments and market necessities. This two–volume handbook
presents 3D solutions to the feature density problem, addressing all important issues, such as wafer processing, die bonding, packaging
technology, and thermal aspects. It begins with an introductory part, which defines necessary goals, existing issues and relates 3D integration
to the semiconductor roadmap of the industry. Before going on to cover processing technology and 3D structure fabrication strategies in
detail. This is followed by fields of application and a look at the future of 3D integration.
The editors have assembled contributions from key academic and industrial players in the field, including Intel, Micron, IBM, Infineon,
Qimonda, NXP, Philips, Toshiba, Semitool, EVG, Tezzaron, Lincoln Labs, Fraunhofer, RPI, IMEC, CEA–LETI and many others.
2 Drivers for 3D Integration
3 Overview of 3D Process Technology
Part I –
Through Silicon Via Fabrication
4 Deep Reactive Ion Etching
5 Laser Ablation
6 Insulation –
7 Insulation –
8 Copper Plating
9 Metallization by chemical vapor deposition of W and Cu
Part II –
Wafer Thinning and Bonding Technology
10 Fabrication, Processing and Singulation of Thin Wafers
11 Overview of Bonding Technologies for 3D Integration
12 Chip–to–Wafer and Wafer–to–Wafer Integration Schemes
13 Polymer Adhesive Bonding Technology
14 Bonding with Intermetallic Compounds
Part III –
15 Commercial Activity
16 Fraunhofer IZM
17 Interconnect Process at the University of Arkansas
18 Vertical Interconnection by ASET at Toshiba
19 3D Integration at CEA–LETI
20 Lincoln Laboratory′s Integration Technology
21 3D Integration Technologies at IMEC
22 Fabrication Using Copper Thermo–Compression Bonding at MIT
23 Rensselaer 3D Integration Processes
24 3D Integration at Tezzaron Semiconductor Corporation
25 3D Integration at Ziptronix, Inc.
26 3D Integration at ZyCube Sendai Lab.
Part IV –
Design, Performance, and Thermal Management
27 Design for 3D Integration at NC State University
28 Design for 3D Integration at Fraunhofer IIS–EAS
29 Multiproject Circuit Design and Layout in Lincoln Laboratory′s 3D Technology
30 Computer–aided Design for 3D Circuits at the University of Minnesota
31 Electrical Performance of 3D Circuits
32 Testing of 3D Circuits
33 Thermal Management of Vertically Integrated Packages at IBM Zurich
Part V –
34 3D and Microprocessors
35 3D Memories
36 Sensor Arrays
37 Power Devices
38 Wireless Sensor Systems –
The e–CUBES Project
is a fellow of IEEE and IMAPS, has served as Associate Editor of the IEEE Transactions on Advanced Packaging, has authored two microelectronics texts and is co–author of over 75 peer reviewed publications and book chapters.
Dr. Christopher Bower is currently a Technical Manager at Semprius Inc., Durham, NC, where he leads a group working on the assembly and wafer–level packaging of advanced multi–junction solar cells for concentrator photovoltaics (CPV). Previously he was a senior scientist at RTI International where he worked on multiple DARPA–funded 3D integration programs. Dr. Bower has authored or co–authored over fifty papers and holds four patents.
Dr. Peter Ramm is head of the department Device and 3D Integration of Fraunhofer EMFT in Munich, Germany, where he is responsible for process integration of innovative devices and heterogeneous systems with a specific focus on 3D integration technologies. Dr. Ramm received the physics and Dr. rer. nat. degrees from the University of Regensburg and subsequently worked for Siemens in the DRAM facility where he was responsible for the process integration. In 1988 he joined Fraunhofer IFT in Munich, focusing for over two decades on 3D integration technologies. Peter Ramm is author or co–author of over 100 publications and 24 patents. He received
the ′Ashman Award 2009′ from the International Electronics Packaging Society (IMAPS) ′For Pioneering Work on 3D IC Stacking and Integration, and leading–edge work on SiGe and Si technologies′. Peter Ramm is Fellow and Life Member of IMAPS, organizing committee
and founding member of IEEE 3DIC conference and co–editor of Wiley´s ′Handbook of Wafer Bonding′.