Psychology

  • ID: 2329917
  • Book
  • 734 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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PSYCHOLOGY by Comer, Gould and Furnham helps students to understand that psychology is around them every day and that its principles are important in answering a whole host of life questions. The text also allows students to see the big picture by stressing the interconnected nature of psychological science. 

- Every chapter includes sections on human development, individual differences, brain function, and abnormal psychology that are relevant in that area. These Tying it Together themes highlight how the different fields of psychology are connected to each other and how they link to everyday life.
- A strong focus on neuroscience is integrated throughout in an exciting and accessible way. Features demonstrate what happens in the brain when people are performing common behaviours such as eating pizza, learning a second language and getting a good night s sleep. 
An
interactive e–book is included with every copy with embedded media including videos, quizzes and activities to put students in the driver s seat. The media is found in the text right where the student needs it, enabling easy access to tools that will help them absorb key concepts and test understanding.

Go to <a href="[external URL] to access your free e–book using the code in the front cover of this text.

Instructors adopting this text are supported by a rich set of teaching resources helping them to deliver this crucial course with more efficiency and impact. Go to [external URL] to access the extensive Test Bank, Instructor Manual Instructor slides, and Class Videos.
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About the Authors

List of Contributors

To the Instructor

To the Student

CHAPTER 1 Psychology: Yesterday and Today

What Is Psychology?

Psychology as the Science of Mind or Behaviour, or Both?

Psychology s Roots in Philosophy

The Scientific Revolution

The Founding of Psychology

Wundt and Introspection (1)

Psychoanalysis: Psychology of the Unconscious (2)

Functionalism: The Practical Application of Psychology (3)

Psychometrics: Measuring the Mind (4)

Gestalt Psychology: More than Putting Together the Building Blocks (5)

Behaviourism: Psychology of Adaptation (6)

Humanistic Psychology: A New Direction (7)

Psychology in the 21st Century: Cognitive Psychology, Neuroscience and Evolution

Psychobiology/Neuroscience: Exploring the Origins of the Mind

The Diversity of Psychology and Psychological Literacy

Psychology as a Profession

Current Trends in Psychology

Summary

Key Terms

CHAPTER 2 Psychology as a Science

What Is a Science?

Scientific Principles

The Scientific Method

Is Psychology a Science?

Goals of Psychology

Values and the Application of Psychology

Misrepresentation of Psychology

How Do Psychologists Conduct Research?

State a Hypothesis

Choose Participant

Pick a Research Method

How Do Psychologists Make Sense of Research Results?

Correlations: Measures of Relationships

Experimental Analyses: Establishing Cause and Effect

Th e Qualitative World

Using Statistics to Evaluate and Plan Research

What Ethical Research Guidelines Do Psychologists Follow?

Summary

Key Terms

CHAPTER 3 Biological and Cognitive Development

What is developmental psychology?

Understanding How We Develop

What Drives Change? Nature versus Nurture

Qualitative versus Quantitative Shifts in Development

Do Early Experiences Matter? Critical Periods and Sensitive Periods

How Is Developmental Psychology Investigated?

Before We Are Born

In the Beginning: Genetics

Infancy

Physical Development

Cognitive Development

Early and Middle Childhood

Physical Development

Adolescence

Physical Development

Cognitive Development

Alternative Accounts of Cognitive Development

Adulthood

Physical and Cognitive Development

Summary

TYING IT TOGETHER

Key Terms

CHAPTER 4 Social and Emotional Development

Before We Are Born

Infancy

Attachment theory

Parenting Styles

Friendship and Peer Relations

Childhood

Moral Development

Theories of Moral Development

Eisenberg s Theory of Prosocial Moral Judgement

Gilligan s Theory of Moral Development

Current Directions in Moral Development

Adolescence

Adulthood and Old Age

Social and Emotional Development in Adulthood

Social and Emotional Features of Early and Middle Adulthood

Social and Emotional Features of Old Age

The Third Age/Fourth Age Distinction

Atypical Development

Autistic Spectrum Disorders

Two Useful Concepts for Atypical Development: Equifinality and Multifinality

Summary

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Key Terms

CHAPTER 5 Behavioural Neuroscience

How Do Scientists Study the Nervous System and the Brain?

How Does the Nervous System Work?

Neurons and Glial Cells or Those Who Act and Those Who Serve

The Action Potential

Seven Lock–and–Key Principles of Receptors and Neurotransmitters

Communication across the Synapse

Neural Networks

The Brain s Structural and Functional Organization

The Brainstem

The Pons

The Cerebellum

The Midbrain

The Thalamus

The Hypothalamus

The Pituitary Gland and the Endocrine System

The Amygdala

The Hippocampus

The Striatum and Basal Ganglia

The Nucleus Accumbens

The Neocortex

The Corpus Callosum

Neurons and the Communication Systems of the Brain, Nervous System and Body

The Integrated Brain

Spinal Cord Injuries

The Peripheral Nervous System

Building the Brain

Brain Development Before We Are Born

Brain Development across the Lifespan

Brain Side and Brain Size

Differences in Brain Lateralization

Gender Differences

Neurological Diseases

Transplanting Stem Cells to Treat Neurological Disorders

Summary

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Key Terms

CHAPTER 6 Genes, Environment and Evolution

The History of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology

Charles Darwin and On the Origin of Species

The Modern Synthesis

Tinbergen, the Birth of Ethology and the Four Whys of Behaviour

Inclusive Fitness

Adaptations, and the Demise of Group Selection

The 1970s: Robert Trivers, E. O. Wilson and the Dawn of Sociobiology

Evolutionary Psychology

The Principles Behind Evolutionary Psychology

Human Evolution

The Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness (EEA)

Genetics

Main Areas of Research in Evolutionary Psychology

Sexual Selection

Kin Selection

Cooperation and Altruism

The Evolution of Cognition

The Evolution of Language

Cultural Evolution

Criticisms and Misunderstandings of Evolutionary Approaches to Human Behaviour

Criticism 1: Evolutionary psychology too often believes a behaviour is an adaptation

(panadaptationism)

Criticism 2: Evolutionary psychology is guilty of biological determinism

Criticism 3: Evolutionary psychology tries to explain things too simply (reductionism)

Criticism 4: Evolutionary psychology justifies immoral behaviours

The Future of Evolutionary Psychology

Further Understanding of Genetics

Hormones

Individual Differences

Neuroscience

Applied Evolutionary Psychology: Darwinian Medicine and Evolutionary Psychopathology

Summary

TYING IT TOGETHER

Key Terms

CHAPTER 7 Perception and the Senses

Introducing Perception: Common Features of the Senses

Translating Stimuli: Sensory Transduction

The Limits of the Senses: Thresholds

Surrounded by Stimuli: Sensory Adaptation

Processing Sensory Information

The Chemical Senses: Smell and Taste

Smell and Taste

Smell and Taste: How They Work

Smell and Taste as We Grow

Sensitivity to Smell and Taste

Smell and Taste Disorders

The Tactile Senses: Touch, Pressure, Pain, Vibration

Tactile Senses

Development of the Tactile Senses

Pain Thresholds

Difficulties with Tactile Senses

The Auditory Sense: Hearing

From Sound Waves to Sounds

Drowning Out the Noise

Sounds in Space

Hearing and the Brain

Hearing and Learning

Identifying Pitch

Difficulties with Hearing

The Visual Sense: Sight

Seeing the Light

Seeing in Colour

How Sight Works

Visual Perception from the Top Down

Developing Sight

Difficulties with Sight

Summary

TYING IT TOGETHER

Key Terms

CHAPTER 8 Consciousness

PART 1: THE PHILOSOPHY OF CONSCIOUSNESS

Defining Consciousness

Is Consciousness Mysterious ?

What s in the World? Part 1: Material Stuff or Mental Stuff

Identity Theory

Eliminativism

Objections to Identity Theory and Eliminativism

The Rise of Functionalism

Criticisms of Functionalism

Assessing the Materialist Approach

What s in the World? Part 2: Material Stuff and Mental Stuff

Dualism

Summary of Part 1

PART 2: STUDYING CONSCIOUS STATES

When We Are Awake: Conscious Awareness

When We Are Awake

Alert Consciousness

Preconscious and Unconscious States

Cognitive Views of the Unconscious

Hypnosis

Hypnotic Procedures and Effects

Why Does Hypnosis Work?

Hypnosis in the Brain

When We Are Asleep

Why Do We Sleep?

Rhythms of Sleep

When We Sleep

Sleep at Different Ages

Sleep Deprivation and Sleep Disorders

Psychoactive Drugs

Depressants

Stimulants

Hallucinogens

Psychoactive Drugs

Summary

TYING IT TOGETHER

Key Terms

CHAPTER 9 Learning

What Is Learning?

Non–Associative Learning

Non–Associative Learning

Associative Learning

Classical Conditioning

How Does Classical Conditioning Work?

Examples of Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning and Fears

Phobias

Classical Conditioning and Taste Aversions

Operant Conditioning

How Does Operant Conditioning Work?

Using Operant Conditioning to Teach New Behaviours

Learnt Helplessness

Learning and Thinking

Observational Learning

Observation and Modelling

Observational Learning and Violence

Factors that Facilitate Learning

Timing

Context

Awareness and Attention

Sleep

When We Learn

Prenatal and Postnatal Learning

Learning and Gender

Learning Difficulties

Dyslexia

Dyscalculia

Attention Deficit Disorders

Issues in Treatment

Summary

TYING IT TOGETHER

Key Terms

CHAPTER 10 Memory

What Is Memory?

How Do We Encode Information into Memory?

Using Automatic and Effortful Processing to Encode

Encoding Information into Working Memory: Transferring from Sensory Memory into Working Memory

Encoding Information into Long–Term Memory: Transferring Working Memory into Long–Term Memory

In What Form Is Information Encoded?

How Do We Store Memories?

Storage in Working Memory

Storage in Long–Term Memory

How Do We Retrieve Memories?

Priming and Retrieval

Context and Retrieval

Emotion: A Special Retrieval Cue

Why Do We Forget and Misremember?

Theories of Forgetting

Distorted or Manufactured Memories

Memory and the Brain

What Is the Anatomy of Memory?

What Is the Biochemistry of Memory?

Memories in the Young and Old

Disorders of Memory

Organic Memory Disorders

Dissociative Disorders

Summary

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Key Terms

CHAPTER 11 Language and Thought

Language

Language Structure

Language Learning

How Language Works

Language Variation

Language and Thought

Thinking without Words: Mental Imagery and Spatial Navigation

The Influence of Language on Thought

Thought

Thinking and Effort: Controlled and Automatic Processing

Thinking to Solve Problems

Thinking to Make Decisions

Metacognition

Disordered Thought

Summary

TYING IT TOGETHER

Key Terms

 CHAPTER 12 Intelligence

What Do We Mean by Intelligence?

Is Intelligence General or Specific?

Current Multifactor Theories of Intelligence

Self–Estimated Intelligence

Where Are We Today?

Additional Types of Intelligence

Emotional Intelligence

Social Intelligence

Wisdom

Creativity

Personality Characteristics

How Do We Measure Intelligence?

Intelligence Test Construction and Interpretation

History of Intelligence Testing

How Well Do Intelligence Tests Predict Performance?

Intelligence and Longevity

Cultural Bias and Stereotypes in Intelligence Testing

Is Human Intelligence Increasing?

Is Intelligence Governed by Genetic or Environmental Factors?

What Are the Social Implications of the Nature/Nurture Debate?

The Bell Curve Controversy

Genetic Influences on Intelligence

Environmental Influences on Intelligence

Group Differences in IQ Scores

Men and Women Are Different (Cognitive Differences between the Sexes)

Does Environmental Enrichment Make a Difference?

The Brain and Intelligence

Brain Size, Number of Neurons and Intelligence

Brain Speed and Intelligence

Brain Activity and Intelligence

Cortical Thickness and Intelligence

Extremes in Intelligence

Intellectual Disability

Giftedness

Summary

TYING IT TOGETHER

Key Terms

CHAPTER 13 Motivation

Theories of Motivation

Instinct Theory

Drive–Reduction Theory

Arousal Theory

Incentive Theory

Multiple Motivations: Hierarchy of Needs

Biological Motivations: Hunger

Hunger Signals

Eating Behaviour

Eating Issues

Biological Motivations: Sex

Sex: Psychological and Social Factors

Sex: What Happens in the Body and Brain

Gender Identity

Difficulties with Sex

Psychological Motivations: Affiliation and Achievement

Affiliation

Achievement

Summary

TYING IT TOGETHER

Key Terms

CHAPTER 14 Emotion

What Is Emotion?

Components of Emotion

Measurement of Emotions

Functions of Emotions

Where Do Emotions Come From?

Theories of Emotion

Emotional Development

Emotion in the Brain

The Range of Emotional Experiences

Experiencing Emotion

Disorders of Emotion

What About Positive Emotions?

Summary

TYING IT TOGETHER

Key Terms

CHAPTER 15 Personality

The Psychodynamic Perspective

The Structure of Personality

Freud s Psychosexual Stages

Anxiety and Defence Mechanisms

Evaluating Freud s Theories

Other Psychodynamic Theories

The Humanistic Perspective

Abraham Maslow

Carl Rogers

Evaluating Humanistic Theories

The Trait Perspective

Gordon Allport

Hans Eysenck and Factor Analysis

The Five–Factor Model

Evaluating Trait Theories

The Situationist and Interactionist Perspectives

The Situationist View

The Interactionist Perspective

Biological Foundations of Personality

How Much Do Genetic Factors Contribute to Personality?

Personality and Biological Systems

Personality and Group Differences

Gender Differences

Differences among Cultural Groups

Culture, Socioeconomic Environment and Personality

Personality Disorders

Personality Assessment

Personality Inventories

Projective Tests

Summary

TYING IT TOGETHER

Key Terms

CHAPTER 16 Social Cognition, Social Relations and Social Functioning

Social Cognition: Attitudes

Attitudes

How Do Attitudes Change?

Do Attitudes Influence Behaviour?

Are People Honest about Their Attitudes?

Stereotypes and Prejudice

Attitudes and the Power of Persuasion

Social Cognition: Attributions

Dispositional and Situational Attributions

The Actor–Observer Effect

Exceptions to the Rule

Social Relations

Helping Behaviour

Aggression

Interpersonal Attraction

Social Functioning

Summary

TYING IT TOGETHER

Key Terms

CHAPTER 17 Social Forces, Group Processes and Language

Social Forces

Norms and Social Roles

Obedience

Intragroup Processes

Group Dynamics

Majority Influence in Groups

Minority Influence in Groups

Intergroup Relations

Realistic Group Conflict Theory

Social Identity Theory

Social Identities in Action

Crowds

Language and Social Groups

Social Representations Theory

Discursive Psychology

Social Psychology around Us

Summary

TYING IT TOGETHER

Key Terms

CHAPTER 18 Stress, Coping and Health

What Is Stress?

Stress and Stressors

Ways of Experiencing Stress

Kinds of Stressors

Responding to and Coping with Stress

Physiological Responses to Stress

Emotional Responses to Stress

Cognitive Responses to Stress

Individual Responses to Stress

Coping with Stress

Stress and Health

Coronary Heart Disease

Life Change and Illness

Stress and the Immune System

The Benefits of Stress

Well–Being and Happiness: The Opposite of Stress

Post–Traumatic Stress Disorder

Summary

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Key Terms

CHAPTER 19 Psychological Disorders

Defining, Classifying and Diagnosing Psychological Disorders

Defining Psychological Disorders

Classifying and Diagnosing Psychological Disorders

Assessing Individuals for Psychological Disorders

Models of Psychological Disorder

The Neuroscience Model

The Cognitive–Behavioural Model

The Humanistic and Existential Models

The Sociocultural Model

The Developmental Psychopathology Model

The Psychodynamic Model

Mood Disorders

Major Depressive Disorder

Bipolar Disorders

Anxiety Disorders

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)

Phobias

Panic Disorder

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Post–traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Schizophrenia

Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia

Psychomotor Symptoms

How Do Neuroscientists Explain Schizophrenia?

Other Psychological Disorders

Somatoform Disorders

Dissociative Disorders

Personality Disorders

Summary

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Key Terms

CHAPTER 20 Treatment of Psychological Disorders

Treatment in the Modern Context

Entering and Receiving Treatment

Conducting Treatment

Biological Treatments

Drug Therapy

Electroconvulsive Therapy

Psychosurgery

Biological Treatments in Perspective

Behavioural Therapies

Classical Conditioning Techniques

Operant Conditioning Techniques

Modelling Techniques

Behavioural Therapies in Perspective

Cognitive–Behavioural Therapies

Ellis s Rational–Emotive Behavioural Therapy

Beck s Cognitive Therapy

Second–Wave Cognitive–Behavioural Therapies

Cognitive–Behavioural Therapies in Perspective

Non–Empirical Therapies

Humanistic and Existential Therapies

Psychodynamic Approaches

Techniques of Psychodynamic Analysis

Short–Term Psychoanalysis

Relational Psychoanalysis

Psychodynamic Approaches in Perspective

Formats of Therapy

Group Therapy

Family Therapy

Couple Therapy

Community Treatment

Does Therapy Work?

Some Final Thoughts about the Field of Psychology

Summary

TYING IT TOGETHER

Key Terms

Glossary

References

Name Index

Subject Index

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Ronald Comer
Elizabeth Gould
Adrian Furnham
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