CMOS Sigma–Delta Converters. Practical Design Guide. Wiley – IEEE

  • ID: 2330323
  • Book
  • 426 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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This book offers a timely practical design guide and comprehensive description of Sigma–Delta Modulators ( Ms). With emphasis on the most important design issues and the multiple trade–offs involved in the whole design flow from specifications to chip implementation and characterization, it compiles the enormous number of technical and research works reported to date on the topic of Ms, and presents the results of such a compilation in a didactical, pedagogical, and intuitive style. Various design methodologies and practical considerations are described with a top–down approach, presenting from theoretical fundamentals, system–level design equations and behavioral models in MATLAB/SIMULINK, to circuit, transistor–level realization in Cadence Design FrameWork II, and physical implementation, chip prototyping and experimental characterization.

Other key features: 

  • a comprehensive and systematic description of M architectures from the basic operating principles to state–of–the–art advances in architectures and circuits, and considering both switched–capacitor and continuous–time circuit implementations
  • a detailed review of state–of–the–art M ICs, extracting statistical and empirical design guidelines, identifying trends, design challenges and solutions
  • case studies showing the different stages of the design flow of Ms
  • a complete description of SIMSIDES (SIMulink Sigma–Delta Simulator), a time–domain behavioral simulator for the high–level sizing and verification of Ms, implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK
  • a number of electronic resources (available through a companion website) including practical examples using SIMSIDES, the statistical data used in the state–of–the–art survey, as well as many design examples and simulation test benches

Using a pedagogical and intuitive approach, this is an essential guide for designers of mixed–signal circuits in nanometer CMOS. It doubly serves as a self–contained reference for researchers, designers and non–experienced engineers wanting to acquire an insight into Ms and for undergraduate and graduate students in electronics engineering.

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List of Abbreviations xvii

Preface xxi

Acknowledgements xxvii

1 Introduction to Modulators: Basic Concepts and Fundamentals 1

1.1 Basics of A/D Conversion 2

1.2 Basics of Sigma–Delta Modulators 8

1.3 Classification of Modulators 15

1.4 Single–Loop Modulators 16

1.5 Cascade Modulators 24

1.6 Multibit Modulators 29

1.7 Band–Pass Modulators 36

1.8 Continuous–Time Modulators 41

1.9 Summary 49

2 Circuits and Errors: Systematic Analysis and Practical Design Issues 54

2.1 Nonidealities in Switched–Capacitor Modulators 55

2.2 Finite Amplifier Gain in SC– Ms 56

2.3 Capacitor Mismatch in SC– Ms 60

2.4 Integrator Settling Error in SC– Ms 62

2.5 Circuit Noise in SC– Ms 71

2.6 Clock Jitter in SC– Ms 75

2.7 Sources of Distortion in SC– Ms 76

2.8 Nonidealities in Continuous–Time Modulators 80

2.9 Clock Jitter in CT– Ms 81

2.10 Excess Loop Delay in CT– Ms 85

2.11 Quantizer Metastability in CT– Ms 88

2.12 Finite Amplifier Gain in CT– Ms 89

2.13 Time–Constant Error in CT– Ms 92

2.14 Finite Integrator Dynamics in CT– Ms 94

2.15 Circuit Noise in CT– Ms 95

2.16 Sources of Distortion in CT– Ms 97

2.17 Case Study: High–Level Sizing of a M 99

2.18 Summary 107

3 Behavioral Modeling and High–Level Simulation 110

3.1 Systematic Design Methodology of Modulators 110

3.2 Simulation Approaches for the High–Level Evaluation of Ms 113

3.3 Implementing M Behavioral Models 118

3.4 Efficient Behavioral Modeling of M Building Blocks using C–MEX S–Functions 134

3.5 SIMSIDES: A SIMULINK–Based Behavioral Simulator for Ms 159

3.6 Using SIMSIDES for the High–Level Sizing and Verification of Ms 167

3.7 Summary 183

4 Circuit–Level Design, Implementation, and Verification 186

4.1 Macromodeling Ms 186

4.2 Including Noise in Transient Electrical Simulations of Ms 199

4.3 Processing M Output Results of Electrical Simulations 208

4.4 Design Considerations and Simulation Test Benches of M Basic Building Blocks 213

4.5 Auxiliary M Building Blocks 250

4.6 Layout Design, Floorplanning, and Practical Issues 257

4.7 Chip Package, Test PCB, and Experimental Set–Up 263

4.8 Summary 270

5 Frontiers of Modulators: Trends and Challenges 273

5.1 Overview of the State of the Art on Ms 274

5.2 Empirical and Statistical Analysis of State–of–the–Art Ms 291

5.3 Cutting–Edge M Architectures and Techniques 300

5.4 Classification of State–of–the–Art References 319

5.5 Summary 319

A SIMSIDES User Guide 334

A.1 Getting Started: Installing and Running SIMSIDES 334

A.2 Building and Editing M Architectures in SIMSIDES 335

A.3 Analyzing Ms in SIMSIDES 337

A.4 Example 345

A.5 Getting Help 354

B SIMSIDES Block Libraries and Models 355

B.1 Overview of SIMSIDES Libraries 355

B.2 Ideal Libraries 355

B.3 Real SC Building–Block Libraries 361

B.4 Real SI Building–Block Libraries 364

B.5 Real CT Building–Block Libraries 371

B.6 Real Quantizers and Comparators 382

B.7 Real D/A Converters 382

B.8 Auxiliary Blocks 384

Index 389

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José M. de la Rosa, IEEE Senior Member, received the M.S. degree in Physics in 1993 and the Ph.D. degree in Microelectronics in 2000, both from the University of Seville, Spain. Since 1993 he has been working at the Institute of Microelectronics of Seville (IMSE), which is in turn part of the Spanish Microelectronics Center (CNM) of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC). He is also with the Department of Electronics and Electromagnetism of the University of Seville, where he is currently an Associate Professor.

His main research interests are in the field of analog and mixed–signal integrated circuits, especially high–performance data converters, including analysis, behavioral modeling, design and design automation of such circuits. In these topics, Dr. de la Rosa has participated in a number of National and European research and industrial projects, and has co–authored more than 170 international peer–reviewed publications, including journal and conference papers, book chapters and the books Systematic Design of CMOS Switched–Current Bandpass Sigma–Delta Modulators for Digital Communication Chips (Kluwer, 2002), CMOS Cascade Sigma–Delta Modulators for Sensors and Telecom: Error Analysis and Practical Design (Springer, 2006) and Nanometer CMOS Sigma–Delta Modulators for Software Defined Radio (Springer, 2011).

Dr. de la Rosa is a member of the Analog Signal Processing Technical Committee of the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society. He serves as Associate Editor for IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers. He has also served and is currently serving as a review committee member of IEEE ISCAS conference. He participated and is currently participating in the organizing and technical committees of diverse international conferences, among others IEEE MWSCAS, IEEE ICECS, IEEE LASCAS, IFIP/IEEE VLSI–SoC and DATE. He served as TPC co–chair of IEEE MWSCAS 2012 and IEEE ICECS 2012.

Rocío del Río Fernández received the M.S. degree in 1996 in Electronic Physics and the Ph.D. degree in 2004, both from the University of Seville, Spain. She joined the Department of Electronics and Electromagnetism of the University of Seville in 1995, where she is an Associate Professor. She is also since 1995 at the Institute of Microelectronics of Seville IMSE–CNM (CSIC / University of Seville), where she works in the group of Analog and Mixed–Signal Microelectronics .

Her main areas of interest are in the field of analog–to–digital converters (especially sigma–delta ADCs), including analysis, behavioral modeling, and design automation. She has participated in diverse National and European R&D projects and has co–authored more than 90 international publications, including journal and conference papers, and books and book chapters.

Dr. del Río has co–authored the books CMOS Cascade Sigma–Delta Modulators for Sensor and Telecom: Error Analysis and Practical Design (Springer, 2006) and Nanometer CMOS Sigma–Delta Modulators for Software Defined Radio (Springer, 2011).


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