Though the deep interior of the Earth (and other terrestrial planets) is inaccessible to humans, we are able to combine observational, experimental and computational (theoretical) studies to begin to understand the role of the deep Earth in the dynamics and evolution of the planet. This book brings together a series of reviews of key areas in this important and vibrant field of studies.
A range of material properties, including phase transformations and rheological properties, influences the way in which material is circulated within the planet. This circulation re–distributes key materials such as volatiles that affect the pattern of materials circulation. The understanding of deep Earth structure and dynamics is a key to the understanding of evolution and dynamics of terrestrial planets, including planets orbiting other stars.
This book contains chapters on deep Earth materials, compositional models, and geophysical studies of material circulation which together provide an invaluable synthesis of deep Earth research.
Readership: advanced undergraduates, graduates and researchers in geophysics, mineral physics and geochemistry.
PART 1 MATERIALS PROPERTIES, 1
1 Volatiles under High Pressure, 3
2 Earth s Mantle Melting in the Presence of C O H Bearing Fluid, 38
Konstantin D. Litasov, Anton Shatskiy, and Eiji Ohtani
3 Elasticity, Anelasticity, and Viscosity of a Partially Molten Rock, 66
4 Rheological Properties of Minerals and Rocks, 94
5 Electrical Conductivity of Minerals and Rocks, 145
Shun–ichiro Karato and Duojun Wang
PART 2 COMPOSITIONAL MODELS, 183
6 Chemical Composition of the Earth s Lower Mantle: Constraints from Elasticity, 185
7 Ab Initio Mineralogical Model of the Earth s Lower Mantle, 213
Taku Tsuchiya and Kenji Kawai
8 Chemical and Physical Properties and Thermal State of the Core, 244
9 Composition and Internal Dynamics of Super–Earths, 271
PART 3 GEOPHYSICAL OBSERVATIONS AND MODELS OF MATERIAL CIRCULATION, 295
10 Seismic Observations of Mantle Discontinuities and Their Mineralogical and Dynamical Interpretation, 297
Arwen Deuss, Jennifer Andrews, and Elizabeth Day
11 Global Imaging of the Earth s Deep Interior: Seismic Constraints on (An)isotropy, Density and Attenuation, 324
Jeannot Trampert and Andreas Fichtner
12 Mantle Mixing: Processes and Modeling, 351
Peter E. van Keken
13 Fluid Processes in Subduction Zones and Water Transport to the Deep Mantle, 372
Hikaru Iwamori and Tomoeki Nakakuki
Colour plate section can be found between pages 214 215