Today s youth is confronted not only with the developmental tasks of adolescence, but also with substantial social and economic changes on the macro level originating from globalization and economic volatility. Furthermore, these changes cascade down to nearly all domains of adolescence, such as education, peer relations, and family life. Adolescents often cannot rely on role models to cope with these changes because their parents grew up in a world with substantially different conditions.
This volume of New Directions for Youth Development brings together research on the implications of social and economic changes for today s youth and covers important topics: adolescents future perspectives, the competencies they need to prosper in specific cultures, changes related to family and school, gender differences in economic roles within changing societies, the effects of technological progress on their lives, the way in which they cope with biographical transitions in flexible markets, and issues of health and resilience.
The articles provide valuable suggestions about what is being done and can be done with regard to individuals or particular groups of youth, especially concerning the application of research findings to interventions.
Issue Editors′ Notes: Youth Success and Adaptation in Times of Globalization and Economic Change 1Xinyin Chen, Verona Christmas–Best, Peter F. Titzmann, Karina Weichold
Executive Summary 11
1. Changes in the economy, the labor market, and expectations for the future: What might Europe and the United States look like in twenty–five years? 17Sandra Buchholz, Hans–Peter BlossfeldEmployment chances for young people have worsened in recent decades, with less educated individuals facing the greatest risks and uncertainty. The authors consider social trends and see a brighter future for youth.
2. Changing contexts of youth development: An overview of recent social trends and a psychological model 27Martin J. Tomasik, Maria K. Pavlova, Clemens M. Lechner, Anja Blumenthal, Astrid KörnerThe authors show that social changes are perceived, appraised, and negotiated differently by individual adolescents, with very different outcomes in terms of psychosocial adjustment and development.
3. Large–scale economic change and youth development: The case of urban China 39Hirokazu Yoshikawa, Niobe Way, Xinyin ChenThe authors examine the effect of the profound economic changes that have swept across the largest nation in the world on work conditions and parenting, and the consequences of these changes for youth development.
4. Academic expectations and well–being from school to work during the economic downturn 57Katariina Salmela–AroProblems related to educational and school–to–work transition have risen in times of rapid economic change. While individual and family–related factors play a role, this article shows how welfare, social, and economic policies can reduce the negative impacts of global and national economic uncertainty for youth.
5. Is uncertainty bad for you? It depends . . . 65Ingrid Schoon, Leslie Morrison Gutman, Ricardo SabatesThis article looks at the multiple interlinked factors that shape career development in an exploration of the role of uncertainty in young people s lives.
6. The future of young women′s economic role in a globalized economy: New opportunities, persisting constraints 77Marlis Buchmann, Tina MaltiThe development of a globalized economy and the increased demand for highly qualified workers have not had great effects on gendered distributions in education and the labor market. The authors consider the many reasons that may underpin this finding.
7. Families, schools, and major demographic trends in the United States 87Robert Crosnoe, Aprile D. BennerThe need for schools to keep pace with changes in the composition of American families, so that transactions between school and families are easier and more effective, is discussed, and suggestions as to how this may be accomplished are presented.
8. Technology and youth 97Gustavo S. MeschNew technologies, especially those related to social networking, present youth with new opportunities, but they also make strong demands on their social skills to realize these opportunities. The article discusses the pros and cons of technological advances in the context of youth development.
9. Competent youth in a "disorderly world": Findings from an eighteen–nation study 107Inge Seiffge–KrenkeSocial changes in all parts of the world, together with increasing globalization, may have contributed to high levels of school–related stress and worries about the future among adolescents. This chapter focuses on these concerns and the coping styles that adolescents from eighteen countries use in dealing with them.
10. Promoting positive youth development in the face of contextual changes and challenges: The roles of individual strengths and ecological assets 119Richard M. Lerner, Edmond P. Bowers, G. John Geldhof, Steinunn Gestsdóttir, Lisette DeSouzaThe authors use a recent study of positive youth development to examine how instances of individual strengths and ecological assets combine to enhance the likelihood that youth will become productive and actively engaged citizens.