Nanobeam X–Ray Scattering. Probing Matter at the Nanoscale

  • ID: 2330932
  • Book
  • 284 Pages
  • John Wiley and Sons Ltd
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A comprehensive overview of X–ray scattering using nano–focused beams for probing matter at the
nanoscale is presented. The monograph includes guidance on the design of nano–beam experiments
and discusses various sources, including free electron lasers, synchrotron radiation and special laboratory
sources.

The rapid progress of this research area was initiated by the availability of brilliant well–collimated
synchrotron X–ray sources and is strongly linked to the recent development of state–of–the art devices
now capable to focus hard X–rays. Accordingly, several experimental methods have developed, such as
nano–beam based scanning diffraction microscopy and spectroscopy, coherent diffraction imaging, etc.
They are used in a broad range of applications in material science, from semiconductor nanostructures
to biological specimen.

It therefore seems a good time to give a first résumé on the achievements made, an overview on
techniques and applications currently available, and based on that, an outlook on the potential of this
approach.

From the contents:

X–ray diffraction principles

X–ray focusing elements characterization

Nanobeam diffraction

Nanobeam diffraction setups

Spectroscopic techniques using focused beams

Coherent diffraction

Coherent limits

Future developments

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INTRODUCTION

X–RAY DIFFRACTION PRINCIPLES

–Introduction

–Beam Coherence

–Specific Properties of Different Sources: Laboratory vs

Synchrotron vs FEL

FOCUSING OF X–RAYS

–Beam Propagation and Modeling

–Focusing Principles Available for the Hard X–Ray Regime

–Clasic Microfocusing Devices

–Practical Issues

SCATTERING EXPERIMENTS USING NANOBEAMS

–From the Ensemble Average Approach Towards the Single

Nanostructure Study

–Diffraction from Single Nanostructures

–Scanning X–Ray Diffraction Microscopy

–Other Types of Contrast

–Local X–Ray Probe Experiments from Organic Samples

–Local X–Ray Probe Experiments from Biological Samples

NANOBEAM DIFFRACTION SETUPS

–Beam Positioning on the Nanoscale

–Stability Issues: Maintaining the Spot on the Sample

During Scanning Angles, Vibrations

–Active Systems to Maintain the Beam Position on the

Sample Constant

–Restriction of Different Setups

–Detector Issues: Resolution in Real and Reciprocal

Space, Dynamic Range, Time Resolution

SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES USING FOCUSED BEAMS

–Micro/Nano–EXAFS, XANES. Fluorescence

–A Side Glance on Soft X–Ray Applications

COHERENT DIFFRACTION

–More on Coherence Properties of Focused X–Ray Beams

–The Use of Phase Retrieval Instead of Modeling

Approaches

–Different Retrieval Algorithms

–Shape Determination of Single Structures (Retrieving

the Modulus of Electron Density)

–Strain Determination (Retrieving the Phase of Electron

Density)

–Fresnel Coherent Diffractive Imaging

–Holographic Approaches (Using a Reference Wave Instead

of Numerical Phase Retrieval)

–Ptychography (For Extended Objects with Nanoscale

Structure)

–Particular Advantages and Problems when Using Coherent

Diffraction Imaging in the Bragg Case

THE POTENTIAL AND THE LIMITS OF THE METHOD

–Limits in Beam Size

–Limits in Intensity/Brilliance

–Resolution Limits in Real and Reciprocal Space

–Combinations with Other Local Probe Techniques

FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

–Detector Developments

–Beamlines at Third Generation Synchrotron Sources

–The Role of Free Electron Lasers

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Julian Stangl
Cristian Mocuta
Virginie Chamard
Dina Carbone
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